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Author Johnson, Burke, author.

Title Educational research : quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches / Burke Johnson, Larry Christensen.

Published Thousand Oaks, Calif. Sage Publications, [2014]
©2014

Copies

Location Call No. Status
 UniM Vet W  370.72 JOHN    AVAILABLE
Edition Fifth edition.
Physical description xxviii, 711 pages : illustrations ; 26 cm.
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index.
Contents Machine generated contents note: pt. I Introduction -- 1.Introduction to Educational Research -- Why Study Educational Research? -- Areas of Educational Research -- Examples of Educational Research -- General Kinds of Research -- Basic and Applied Research -- Evaluation Research -- Action Research -- Orientational Research -- Sources of Knowledge -- Experience -- Reasoning -- The Scientific Approach to Knowledge Generation -- Dynamics of Science -- Basic Assumptions of Science -- Scientific Methods -- Theory -- The Principle of Evidence -- Objectives of Educational Research -- Overview of Book -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Discussion Questions -- Research Exercises -- Relevant Internet Sites -- Recommended Reading -- 2.Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research -- Characteristics of the Three Research Paradigms -- Quantitative Research Methods: Experimental and Nonexperimental Research -- Variables -- Experimental Research -- Nonexperimental Research --
Contents note continued: Qualitative Research Methods -- Phenomenology -- Ethnography -- Narrative Inquiry -- Case Study Research -- Grounded Theory -- Historical Research -- Mixed Research (or Mixed Methods Research) -- The Advantages of Mixed Research -- Our Research Typology -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Discussion Questions -- Research Exercises -- Relevant Internet Sites -- Recommended Reading -- 3.Action Research for Lifelong Learning -- Defining Action Research -- Origins of Action Research -- Basic Scientific Research Versus Action Research -- Types of Action Research -- The Cycle of Action Research -- Strengths and Weaknesses of Action Research -- Action Research Journaling -- Action Research in the Remaining Chapters of this Book -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Discussion Questions -- Research Exercises -- Relevant Internet Sites -- Recommended Reading -- Note -- pt. II Planning the Research Study -- 4.How to Review the Literature and Develop Research Questions --
Contents note continued: Sources of Research Ideas -- Everyday Life -- Practical Issues -- Past Research -- Theory -- Ideas That Can't Be Resolved Through Empirical Research -- Review of the Literature -- Literature Review for Quantitative Research Studies -- Literature Review for Qualitative Research Studies -- Sources of Information -- Conducting the Literature Search -- Using Databases -- Using the Public Internet -- Feasibility of the Study -- Statement of the Research Problem -- Stating a Quantitative Research Problem -- Stating a Qualitative Research Problem -- Statement of the Purpose of the Study -- Statement of Purpose in a Quantitative Study -- Statement of Purpose in a Qualitative Study -- Statement of Research Questions -- Statement of a Quantitative Research Question -- Statement of a Qualitative Research Question -- Formulating Hypotheses -- Consumer Use of the Literature -- Action Research Reflection -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Discussion Questions --
Contents note continued: Research Exercises -- Relevant Internet Sites -- Recommended Reading -- 5.How to Write a Research Proposal -- Framework of the Research Proposal -- Strategies for Writing Each Section of the Research Proposal -- Introduction -- Method -- Research Participants -- Design -- Apparatus and/or Instruments -- Procedure -- Data Analysis -- Abstract -- Action Research Reflection -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Discussion Questions -- Research Exercise -- Relevant Internet Sites -- Recommended Reading -- 6.Research Ethics -- What Are Research Ethics? -- Ethical Concerns -- Relationship Between Society and Science -- Professional Issues -- Treatment of Research Participants -- Ethical Guidelines for Research With Humans -- Informed Consent -- Informed Consent and Minors as Research Participants -- Passive Versus Active Consent -- Additional Consent -- Deception -- Freedom to Withdraw -- Protection From Mental and Physical Harm --
Contents note continued: Confidentiality, Anonymity, and the Concept of Privacy -- Institutional Review Board -- Ethical Issues in Electronic Research -- Informed Consent and Internet Research -- Privacy and Internet Research -- Debriefing and Internet Research -- Ethical Issues in Preparing the Research Report -- Authorship -- Writing the Research Report -- Action Research Reflection -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Discussion Questions -- Research Exercises -- Relevant Internet Sites -- Recommended Reading -- pt. III Foundations of Research -- 7.Standardized Measurement and Assessment -- Defining Measurement -- Scales of Measurement -- Nominal Scale -- Ordinal Scale -- Interval Scale -- Ratio Scale -- Assumptions Underlying Testing and Assessment -- Identifying a Good Test or Assessment Procedure -- Overview of Reliability and Validity -- Reliability -- Validity -- Using Reliability and Validity Information -- Educational and Psychological Tests -- Intelligence Tests --
Contents note continued: Personality Tests -- Educational Assessment Tests -- Sources of Information About Tests -- Action Research Reflection -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Discussion Questions -- Research Exercises -- Exercise Sheet -- Relevant Internet Sites -- Recommended Reading -- Notes -- 8.How to Construct a Questionnaire -- What Is a Questionnaire? -- Principles of Questionnaire Construction -- Principle 1. Make sure the questionnaire items match your research objectives -- Principle 2. Understand your research participants -- Principle 3. Use natural and familiar language -- Principle 4. Write items that are clear, precise, and relatively short -- Principle 5. Do not use "leading" or "loaded" questions -- Principle 6. Avoid double-barreled questions -- Principle 7. Avoid double negatives -- Principle 8. Determine whether an open-ended or a closed-ended question is needed -- Principle 9. Use mutually exclusive and exhaustive response categories for closed-ended questions --
Contents note continued: Principle 10. Consider the different types of response categories available for closed-ended questionnaire items -- Principle 11. Use multiple items to measure abstract constructs -- Principle 12. Consider using multiple methods when measuring abstract constructs -- Principle 13. Use caution if you reverse the wording in some of the items to prevent response sets in multi-item scales -- Principle 14. Develop a questionnaire that is properly organized and easy for the participant to use -- Principle 15. Always pilot test your questionnaire -- Putting It All Together -- Action Research Reflection -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Research Exercises -- Relevant Internet Sites -- Recommended Reading -- Notes -- 9.Six Major Methods of Data Collection -- Tests -- Questionnaires -- Interviews -- Quantitative Interviews -- Qualitative Interviews -- Focus Groups -- Observation -- Quantitative Observation -- Qualitative Observation -- Visual Data --
Contents note continued: Constructed and Secondary or Existing Data -- Action Research Reflection -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Discussion Questions -- Research Exercises -- Relevant Internet Site -- Recommended Reading -- 10.Sampling in Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research -- Terminology Used in Sampling -- Random Sampling Techniques -- Simple Random Sampling -- Systematic Sampling -- Stratified Random Sampling -- Cluster Random Sampling -- Nonrandom Sampling Techniques -- Convenience Sampling -- Quota Sampling -- Purposive Sampling -- Snowball Sampling -- Random Selection and Random Assignment -- Determining the Sample Size When Random Sampling Is Used -- Sampling in Qualitative Research -- Sampling in Mixed Research -- Action Research Reflection -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Discussion Questions -- Research Exercises -- Relevant Internet Sites -- Recommended Reading -- Notes -- 11.Validity of Research Results in Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research --
Contents note continued: Validity Issues in the Design of Quantitative Research -- Internal Validity (or Causal Validity) -- Two Major Types of Causal Relationships -- Criteria for Inferring Causation -- Threats to Internal Validity in Single-Group Designs -- Threats to Internal Validity in Multigroup Designs -- External Validity (or Generalizing Validity) -- Population Validity -- Ecological Validity -- Temporal Validity -- Treatment Variation Validity -- Outcome Validity -- Construct Validity -- Operationalism -- Treatment Diffusion -- Statistical Conclusion Validity -- Research Validity (or "Trustworthiness") in Qualitative Research -- Descriptive Validity -- Interpretive Validity -- Theoretical Validity -- Internal Validity -- External Validity -- Research Validity (or "Legitimation") in Mixed Research -- Action Research Reflection -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Discussion Questions -- Research Exercises -- Relevant Internet Sites -- Recommended Reading -- Notes --
Contents note continued: pt. IV Selecting a Research Method -- Section A Quantitative Research Methods: Five Major Approaches -- 12.Experimental Research: Weak and Strong Designs -- The Experiment -- Experimental Research Settings -- Field Experiment -- Laboratory Experiment -- Internet Experiment -- Independent Variable Manipulation -- Ways to Manipulate an Independent Variable -- Control of Confounding Variables -- Random Assignment -- Matching -- Holding the Extraneous Variable Constant -- Building the Extraneous Variable Into the Research Design -- Analysis of Covariance -- Counterbalancing -- Experimental Research Designs -- Weak Experimental Research Designs -- Strong Experimental Research Designs -- Factorial Designs -- Repeated-Measures Designs -- Factorial Designs Based on a Mixed Model -- Action Research Reflection -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Discussion Questions -- Research Exercises -- Relevant Internet Sites -- Recommended Reading -- Notes --
Contents note continued: 13.Experimental Research: Quasi and Single-Case Designs -- Quasi-Experimental Research Designs -- Nonequivalent Comparison-Group Design -- Interrupted Time-Series Design -- Regression-Discontinuity Design -- Single-Case Experimental Designs -- A-B-A and A-B-A-B Designs -- Multiple-Baseline Design -- Changing-Criterion Design -- Methodological Considerations in Using Single-Case Designs -- Action Research Reflection -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Discussion Questions -- Research Exercises -- Relevant Internet Sites -- Recommended Reading -- Note -- 14.Nonexperimental Quantitative Research -- Steps in Nonexperimental Research -- Independent Variables in Nonexperimental Research -- Simple Cases of Nonexperimental Quantitative Research -- Three Required Conditions for Cause-and-Effect Relationships -- Applying the Three Required Conditions for Causation in Nonexperimental Research --
Contents note continued: Techniques of Control in Nonexperimental Research (i.e., How to Design Strong Nonexperimental Research) -- Matching -- Holding the Extraneous Variable Constant -- Statistical Control -- Interlude (The Study of Causal Relationships in Epidemiology) -- Classifying Nonexperimental Research by Time and Research Objective -- The Time Dimension in Nonexperimental Research -- Cross-Sectional Research -- Longitudinal Research -- Retrospective Research -- The Research Objective Dimension in Nonexperimental Research -- Descriptive Nonexperimental Research -- Predictive Nonexperimental Research -- Explanatory Nonexperimental Research -- Action Research Reflection -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Discussion Questions -- Research Exercises -- Relevant Internet Sites -- Recommended Reading -- Notes -- Section B Qualitative Research Methods: Five Major Approaches Plus Historical Research -- 15.Narrative Inquiry and Case Study Research -- Narrative Inquiry --
Contents note continued: I. Introduction: The Importance of Coming to Terms and Definitions -- II. Designing a Narrative Study -- 1.Four Key Terms to Structure a Narrative Inquiry -- 2.Inquiry Starting Points -- 3.Attending to Justifications at the Inquiry Outset and Throughout the Inquiry -- 4.Research Puzzles Rather Than Research Questions -- 5.Entering Into the Midst -- 6.From Field to Field Texts -- 7.From Field Texts to Interim and Final Research Texts -- 8.Relational Ethics at the Heart of Narrative Inquiry---Relational Responsibilities -- III. Narrative Inquiry: So Much More Than Telling Stories -- Case Study Research -- What Is a Case? -- Types of Case Study Research Designs -- Data Collection, Analysis, and Report Writing -- Action Research Reflection -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Discussion Questions -- Research Exercises -- Exercise Sheet -- Relevant Internet Sites -- Recommended Reading -- Note -- 16.Phenomenology, Ethnography, and Grounded Theory -- Phenomenology --
Contents note continued: Examples of Phenomenology -- Types of Phenomenology -- Data Collection, Analysis, and Report Writing -- Ethnography -- The Idea of Culture -- Examples of Ethnographic Research -- Types of Ethnographic Research -- Data Collection, Analysis, and Report Writing -- Grounded Theory -- Characteristics of a Grounded Theory -- Example of a Grounded Theory -- Data Collection, Analysis, and Report Writing -- Action Research Reflection -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Discussion Questions -- Research Exercises -- Exercise Sheet -- Relevant Internet Sites -- Recommended Reading -- Note -- 17.Historical Research -- What Is Historical Research? -- Significance of Historical Research -- Historical Research Methodology -- Identification of the Research Topic and Formulation of the Research Problem or Question -- Data Collection or Literature Review -- Documents and Other Written Records -- Photographs -- Relics -- Oral Histories -- How to Locate Historical Information --
Contents note continued: Primary Versus Secondary Sources -- Evaluation of Historical Sources -- External Criticism -- Internal Criticism -- Data Synthesis and Report Preparation -- Action Research Reflection -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Discussion Questions -- Research Exercises -- Relevant Internet Sites -- Recommended Reading -- Section C Mixed Methods Research: Many Approaches -- 18.Mixed Research -- The Research Continuum -- Types of Mixed Research Designs -- Examples of Qualitatively Driven, Quantitatively Driven, and Equal-Emphasis or Interactive Studies -- Stages of the Mixed Research Process -- Step 1. Determine Whether a Mixed Design Is Appropriate -- Step 2. Determine the Rationale for Using a Mixed Design -- Step 3. Select or Construct the Mixed Research Design and Mixed Sampling Design -- Step 4. Collect Data -- Step 5. Analyze the Data -- Step 6. Continually Validate the Data -- Step 7. Continually Interpret the Data and Findings --
Contents note continued: Step 8. Write the Research Report -- Limitations of Mixed Research -- Action Research Reflection -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Discussion Questions -- Research Exercises -- Relevant Internet Sites -- Recommended Reading -- pt. V Analyzing the Data -- 19.Descriptive Statistics -- Descriptive Statistics -- Frequency Distributions -- Graphic Representations of Data -- Bar Graphs -- Histograms -- Line Graphs -- Scatter Plots -- Measures of Central Tendency -- Mode -- Median -- Mean -- A Comparison of the Mean, Median, and Mode -- Measures of Variability -- Range -- Variance and Standard Deviation -- Standard Deviation and the Normal Distribution -- Measures of Relative Standing -- Percentile Ranks -- z Scores -- Examining Relationships Among Variables -- Contingency Tables -- Regression Analysis -- Action Research Reflection -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Discussion Questions -- Research Exercises -- Relevant Internet Sites -- Recommended Reading -- Notes --
Contents note continued: 20.Inferential Statistics -- Sampling Distributions -- Sampling Distribution of the Mean -- Estimation -- Point Estimation -- Interval Estimation -- Hypothesis Testing -- Null and Alternative Hypotheses -- Directional Alternative Hypotheses -- Examining the Probability Value and Making a Decision -- The Hypothesis-Testing Decision Matrix -- Controlling the Risk of Errors -- Hypothesis Testing in Practice -- t Test for Independent Samples -- One-Way Analysis of Variance -- t Post Hoc Tests in Analysis of Variance -- t Test for Correlation Coefficients -- t Test for Regression Coefficients -- Chi-Square Test for Contingency Tables -- Other Significance Tests -- Action Research Reflection -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Discussion Questions -- Research Exercises -- Exercise Sheet -- Relevant Internet Sites -- Recommended Reading -- Notes -- 21.Data Analysis in Qualitative and Mixed Research -- Interim Analysis -- Memoing -- Analysis of Visual Data --
Contents note continued: Data Entry and Storage -- Segmenting, Coding, and Developing Category Systems -- Inductive and A Priori Codes -- Co-Occurring and Facesheet Codes -- Enumeration -- Creating Hierarchical Category Systems -- Identifying Relationships Among Categories -- Drawing Diagrams -- Corroborating and Validating Results -- Computer Programs for Qualitative Data Analysis -- Data Analysis in Mixed Research -- Mixed Analysis Matrix -- Analytical Procedures in Mixed Data Analysis -- Action Research Reflection -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Discussion Questions -- Research Exercise -- Exercise Sheet -- Relevant Internet Sites -- Recommended Reading -- Notes -- pt. VI Writing the Research Report -- 22.How to Prepare a Research Report and Use APA Style Guidelines -- General Principles Related to Writing the Research Report (I) -- Language (I.1) -- Editorial Style (I.2) -- Reference List (I.3) -- Typing (I.4) -- Writing an APA-Style Quantitative Research Report (II) --
Contents note continued: Title Page (II.1) -- Abstract (II.2) -- Introduction (II.3) -- Method (II.4) -- Results (II.5) -- Discussion (II.6) -- References (II.7) -- Footnotes (II.8) -- Tables (II.9) -- Figures (II.10) -- Example of an APA-Style Manuscript -- Writing Qualitative Research Reports -- Writing Mixed Research Reports -- Action Research Reflection -- Summary -- Key Term -- Discussion Questions -- Research Exercises -- Relevant Internet Sites -- Recommended Reading.
Summary This text gives upper-level undergraduate and graduate students an understanding of the multiple research methods and strategies, including qualitative, quantitative, and action research, as well as mixed methods inquiry, used in education and related fields. The authors expertly teach students how to: read and critically evaluate published research; write a proposal, construct a questionnaire, and conduct an empirical research study on their own; and ultimately write up their results in a research report using APA style.
Other author Christensen, Larry B.
Subject Education -- Research -- Methodology.
Education -- Research.
ISBN 9781452244402 (hardcover : alk. paper)
Standard Number 99956817957