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Author Lewin, Benjamin.

Title Genes IX / Benjamin Lewin.

Published Sudbury, Mass. : Jones and Bartlett Publishers, [2008]
©2008

LocationUniM BioMed High Use Large 
Call No.576.5 LEWI

LocationUniM BioMed High Use Large 
Call No.576.5 LEWI

LocationUniM BioMed High Use Large 
Call No.576.5 LEWI

LocationUniM BioMed High Use Large 
Call No.576.5 LEWI

Copies

Location Call No. Status
 UniM BioMed  576.5 LEWI    AVAILABLE
Edition 9th ed.
Physical description xvii, 892 pages : illustrations (chiefly colour) ; 29 cm
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index.
Contents 1 Genes Are DNA 1 -- 1.2 DNA Is the Genetic Material of Bacteria 3 -- 1.3 DNA Is the Genetic Material of Viruses 4 -- 1.4 DNA Is the Genetic Material of Animal Cells 5 -- 1.5 Polynucleotide Chains Have Nitrogenous Bases Linked to a Sugar-Phosphate Backbone 6 -- 1.6 DNA Is a Double Helix 6 -- 1.7 DNA Replication Is Semiconservative 8 -- 1.8 DNA Strands Separate at the Replication Fork 9 -- 1.9 Genetic Information Can Be Provided by DNA or RNA 10 -- 1.10 Nucleic Acids Hybridize by Base Pairing 12 -- 1.11 Mutations Change the Sequence of DNA 14 -- 1.12 Mutations May Affect Single Base Pairs or Longer Sequences 15 -- 1.13 Effects of Mutations Can Be Reversed 16 -- 1.14 Mutations Are Concentrated at Hotspots 17 -- 1.15 Many Hotspots Result from Modified Bases 18 -- 1.16 Some Hereditary Agents Are Extremely Small 19 -- 2 Genes Code for Proteins 23 -- 2.2 A Gene Codes for a Single Polypeptide 24 -- 2.3 Mutations in the Same Gene Cannot Complement 25 -- 2.4 Mutations May Cause Loss-of-Function or Gain-of-Function 26 -- 2.5 A Locus May Have Many Different Mutant Alleles 27 -- 2.6 A Locus May Have More than One Wild-type Allele 28 -- 2.7 Recombination Occurs by Physical Exchange of DNA 28 -- 2.8 Genetic Code Is Triplet 30 -- 2.9 Every Sequence Has Three Possible Reading Frames 31 -- 2.10 Prokaryotic Genes Are Colinear with Their Proteins 32 -- 2.11 Several Processes Are Required to Express the Protein Product of a Gene 33 -- 2.12 Proteins Are Trans-acting, but Sites on DNA Are Cis-acting 35 -- 3 Interrupted Gene 37 -- 3.2 An Interrupted Gene Consists of Exons and Introns 38 -- 3.3 Restriction Endonucleases Are a Key Tool in Mapping DNA 39 -- 3.4 Organization of Interrupted Genes May Be Conserved 40 -- 3.5 Exon Sequences Are Conserved but Introns Vary 42 -- 3.6 Genes Show a Wide Distribution of Sizes 43 -- 3.7 Some DNA Sequences Code for More Than One Protein 45 -- 3.8 How Did Interrupted Genes Evolve? 47 -- 3.9 Some Exons Can Be Equated with Protein Functions 49 -- 3.10 Members of a Gene Family Have a Common Organization 51 -- 3.11 Is All Genetic Information Contained in DNA? 53 -- 4 Content of the Genome 55 -- 4.2 Genomes Can Be Mapped by Linkage, Restriction Cleavage, or DNA Sequence 56 -- 4.3 Individual Genomes Show Extensive Variation 57 -- 4.4 RFLPs and SNPs Can Be Used for Genetic Mapping 58 -- 4.5 Why Are Genomes So Large? 60 -- 4.6 Eukaryotic Genomes Contain Both Nonrepetitive and Repetitive DNA Sequences 61 -- 4.7 Genes Can Be Isolated by the Conservation of Exons 63 -- 4.8 Conservation of Genome Organization Helps to Identify Genes 65 -- 4.9 Organelles Have DNA 67 -- 4.10 Organelle Genomes Are Circular DNAs That Code for Organelle Proteins 69 -- 4.11 Mitochondrial DNA Organization Is Variable 70 -- 4.12 Chloroplast Genome Codes for Many Proteins and RNAs 71 -- 4.13 Mitochondria Evolved by Endosymbiosis 72 -- 5 Genome Sequences and Gene Numbers 76 -- 5.2 Bacterial Gene Numbers Range Over an Order of Magnitude 77 -- 5.3 Total Gene Number Is Known for Several Eukaryotes 79 -- 5.4 How Many Different Types of Genes Are There? 81 -- 5.5 Human Genome Has Fewer Genes Than Expected 83 -- 5.6 How Are Genes and Other Sequences Distributed in the Genome? 85 -- 5.7 Y Chromosome Has Several Male-Specific Genes 86 -- 5.8 More Complex Species Evolve by Adding New Gene Functions 87 -- 5.9 How Many Genes Are Essential? 89 -- 5.10 Genes Are Expressed at Widely Differing Levels 92 -- 5.11 How Many Genes Are Expressed? 93 -- 5.12 Expressed Gene Number Can Be Measured En Masse 93 -- 6 Clusters and Repeats 98 -- 6.2 Gene Duplication Is a Major Force in Evolution 100 -- 6.3 Globin Clusters Are Formed by Duplication and Divergence 101 -- 6.4 Sequence Divergence Is the Basis for the Evolutionary Clock 104 -- 6.5 Rate of Neutral Substitution Can Be Measured from Divergence of Repeated Sequences 107 -- 6.6 Pseudogenes Are Dead Ends of Evolution 108 -- 6.7 Unequal Crossing-over Rearranges Gene Clusters 109 -- 6.8 Genes for rRNA Form Tandem Repeats 112 -- 6.9 Repeated Genes for rRNA Maintain Constant Sequence 114 -- 6.10 Crossover Fixation Could Maintain Identical Repeats 115 -- 6.11 Satellite DNAs Often Lie in Heterochromatin 117 -- 6.12 Arthropod Satellites Have Very Short Identical Repeats 119 -- 6.13 Mammalian Satellites Consist of Hierarchical Repeats 120 -- 6.14 Minisatellites Are Useful for Genetic Mapping 123 -- 7 Messenger RNA 127 -- 7.2 mRNA Is Produced by Transcription and Is Translated 129 -- 7.3 Transfer RNA Forms a Cloverleaf 130 -- 7.4 Acceptor Stem and Anticodon Are at Ends of the Tertiary Structure 131 -- 7.5 Messenger RNA Is Translated by Ribosomes 132 -- 7.6 Many Ribosomes Bind to One mRNA 133 -- 7.7 Life Cycle of Bacterial Messenger RNA 135 -- 7.8 Eukaryotic mRNA Is Modified During or after Its Transcription 137 -- 7.9 5' End of Eukaryotic mRNA Is Capped 138 -- 7.10 3' Terminus Is Polyadenylated 139 -- 7.11 Bacterial mRNA Degradation Involves Multiple Enzymes 140 -- 7.12 mRNA Stability Depends on Its Structure and Sequence 141 -- 7.13 mRNA Degradation Involves Multiple Activities 143 -- 7.14 Nonsense Mutations Trigger a Surveillance System 144 -- 7.15 Eukaryotic RNAs Are Transported 145 -- 7.16 mRNA Can Be Specifically Localized 146 -- 8 Protein Synthesis 151 -- 8.2 Protein Synthesis Occurs by Initiation, Elongation, and Termination 153 -- 8.3 Special Mechanisms Control the Accuracy of Protein Synthesis 155 -- 8.4 Initiation in Bacteria Needs 30S Subunits and Accessory Factors 157 -- 8.5 A Special Initiator tRNA Starts the Polypeptide Chain 158 -- 8.6 Use of fMet-tRNA[subscript f] Is Controlled by IF-2 and the Ribosome 150 -- 8.7 Initiation Involves Base Pairing Between mRNA and rRNA 161 -- 8.8 Small Subunits Scan for Initiation Sites on Eukaryotic mRNA 162 -- 8.9 Eukaryotes Use a Complex of Many Initiation Factors 164 -- 8.10 Elongation Factor Tu Loads Aminoacyl-tRNA into the A Site 167 -- 8.11 Polypeptide Chain Is Transferred to Aminoacyl-tRNA 168 -- 8.12 Translocation Moves the Ribosome 169 -- 8.13 Elongation Factors Bind Alternately to the Ribosome 170 -- 8.14 Three Codons Terminate Protein Synthesis 172 -- 8.15 Termination Codons Are Recognized by Protein Factors 173 -- 8.16 Ribosomal RNA Pervades Both Ribosomat Subunits 175 -- 8.17 Ribosomes Have Several Active Centers 177 -- 8.18 16S rRNA Plays an Active Role in Protein Synthesis 179 -- 8.19 23S rRNA Has Peptidyl Transferase Activity 182 -- 8.20 Ribosomal Structures Change When the Subunits Come Together 183 -- 9 Using the Genetic Code 189 -- 9.2 Related Codons Represent Related Amino Acids 190 -- 9.3 Codon-Anticodon Recognition Involves Wobbling 192 -- 9.4 tRNAs Are Processed from Longer Precursors 194 -- 9.5 tRNA Contains Modified Bases 194 -- 9.6 Modified Bases Affect Anticodon-Codon Pairing 196 -- 9.7 There Are Sporadic Alterations of the Universal Code 197 -- 9.8 Novel Amino Acids Can Be Inserted at Certain Stop Codons 199 -- 9.9 tRNAs Are Charged with Amino Acids by Synthetases 200 -- 9.10 Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases Fall into Two Groups 201 -- 9.11 Synthetases Use Proofreading to Improve Accuracy 203 -- 9.12 Suppressor tRNAs Have Mutated Anticodons That Read New Codons 206 -- 9.13 There Are Nonsense Suppressors for Each Termination Codon 207 -- 9.14 Suppressors May Compete with Wild-Type Reading of the Code 208 -- 9.15 Ribosome Influences the Accuracy of Translation 209 -- 9.16 Recoding Changes Codon Meanings 211 -- 9.17 Frameshifting Occurs at Slippery Sequences 213 -- 9.18 Bypassing Involves Ribosome Movement 214 -- 10 Protein Localization 218 -- 10.2 Passage Across a Membrane Requires a Special Apparatus 220 -- 10.3 Protein Translocation May Be Posttranslational or Cotranslational 221 -- 10.4 Chaperones May Be Required for Protein Folding 223 -- 10.5 Chaperones Are Needed by Newly Synthesized and by Denatured Proteins 224 -- 10.6 Hsp70 Family Is Ubiquitous 226 -- 10.7 Signal Sequences Initiate Translocation 227 -- 10.8 Signal Sequence Interacts with the SRP 228 -- 10.9 SRP Interacts with the SRP Receptor 229 -- 10.10 Translocon Forms a Pore 231
-- 10.11 Translocation Requires Insertion into the Translocon and (Sometimes) a Ratchet in the ER 233 -- 10.12 Reverse Translocation Sends Proteins to the Cytosol for Degradation 234 -- 10.13 Proteins Reside in Membranes by Means of Hydrophobic Regions 235 -- 10.14 Anchor Sequences Determine Protein Orientation 236 -- 10.15 How Do Proteins Insert into Membranes? 238 -- 10.16 Posttranslational Membrane Insertion Depends on Leader Sequences 240 --
10.17 A Hierarchy of Sequences Determines Location within Organelles 241 -- 10.18 Inner and Outer Mitochondrial Membranes Have Different Translocons 243 -- 10.19 Peroxisomes Employ Another Type of Translocation System 245 -- 10.20 Bacteria Use Both Cotranslational and Posttranslational Translocation 246 -- 10.21 Sec System Transports Proteins into and Through the Inner Membrane 247 -- 10.22 Sec-Independent Translocation Systems in E. coli 249 -- 11 Transcription 256 -- 11.2 Transcription Occurs by Base Pairing in a "Bubble" of Unpaired DNA 259 -- 11.3 Transcription Reaction Has Three Stages 260 -- 11.4 Phage T7 RNA Polymerase Is a Useful Model System 251 -- 11.5 A Model for Enzyme Movement Is Suggested by the Crystal Structure 262 -- 11.6 Bacterial RNA Polymerase Consists of Multiple Subunits 265 -- 11.7 RNA Polymerase Consists of the Core Enzyme and Sigma Factor 267 -- 11.8 Association with Sigma Factor Changes at Initiation 267 -- 11.9 A Stalled RNA Polymerase Can Restart 269 -- 11.10 How Does RNA Polymerase Find Promoter Sequences? 270 -- 11.11 Sigma Factor Controls Binding to DNA 271 -- 11.12 Promoter Recognition Depends on Consensus Sequences 272 -- 11.13 Promoter Efficiencies Can Be Increased or Decreased by Mutation 274 -- 11.14 RNA Polymerase Binds to One Face of DNA 275 -- 11.15 Supercoiling Is an Important Feature of Transcription 277 -- 11.16 Substitution of Sigma Factors May Control Initiation 278 -- 11.17 Sigma Factors Directly Contact DNA 280 -- 11.18 Sigma Factors May Be Organized into Cascades 282 -- 11.19 Sporulation Is Controlled by Sigma Factors 283 -- 11.20 Bacterial RNA Polymerase Terminates at Discrete Sites 286 -- 11.21 There Are Two Types of Terminators in E. coli 287 -- 11.22 How Does Rho Factor Work? 288 -- 11.23 Antitermination Is a Regulatory Event 291 -- 11.24 Antitermination Requires Sites That Are Independent of the Terminators 292 -- 11.25 Termination and Antitermination Factors Interact with RNA Polymerase 293 -- 12 Operon 300 -- 12.2 Regulation Can Be Negative or Positive 303 -- 12.3 Structural Gene Clusters Are Coordinately Controlled 304 -- 12.4 Lac Genes Are Controlled by a Repressor 304 -- 12.5 Lac Operon Can Be Induced 305 -- 12.6 Repressor Is Controlled by a Small-Molecule Inducer 306 -- 12.7 cis-Acting Constitutive Mutations Identify the Operator 308 -- 12.8 trans-Acting Mutations Identify the Regulator Gene 309 -- 12.9 Multimeric Proteins Have Special Genetic Properties 309 -- 12.10 Repressor Monomer Has Several Domains 310 -- 12.11 Repressor Is a Tetramer Made of Two Dimers 311 -- 12.12 DNA-Binding Is Regulated by an Allosteric Change in Conformation 312 -- 12.13 Mutant Phenotypes Correlate with the Domain Structure 312 -- 12.14 Repressor Protein Binds to the Operator 313 -- 12.15 Binding of Inducer Releases Repressor from the Operator 314 -- 12.16 Repressor Binds to Three Operators and Interacts with RNA Polymerase 315 -- 12.17 Repressor Is Always Bound to DNA 316 -- 12.18 Operator Competes with Low-Affinity Sites to Bind Repressor 317 -- 12.19 Repression Can Occur at Multiple Loci 319 -- 12.20 Cyclic AMP Is an Effector That Activates CRP to Act at Many Operons 320 -- 12.21 CRP Functions in Different Ways in Different Target Operons 321 -- 12.22 Translation Can Be Regulated 323 -- 12.23 r-Protein Synthesis Is Controlled by Autogenous Regulation 325 -- 12.24 Phage T4 p32 Is Controlled by an Autogenous Circuit 326 -- 12.25 Autogenous Regulation Is Often Used to Control Synthesis of Macromolecular Assemblies 327 -- 13 Regulatory RNA 331 -- 13.2 Alternative Secondary Structures Control Attenuation 333 -- 13.3 Termination of Bacillus subtilis trp Genes Is Controlled by Tryptophan and by tRNA[superscript Trp] 333 -- 13.4 Escherichia coli tryptophan Operon Is Controlled by Attenuation 335 -- 13.5 Attenuation Can Be Controlled by Translation 336 -- 13.6 Antisense RNA Can Be Used to Inactivate Gene Expression 338 -- 13.7 Small RNA Molecules Can Regulate Translation 339 -- 13.8 Bacteria Contain Regulator RNAs 341 -- 13.9 MicroRNAs Are Regulators in Many Eukaryotes 342 -- 13.10 RNA Interference Is Related to Gene Silencing 343 -- 14 Phage Strategies 349 -- 14.2 Lytic Development Is Divided into Two Periods 352 -- 14.3 Lytic Development Is Controlled by a Cascade 353 -- 14.4 Two Types of Regulatory Event Control the Lytic Cascade 354 -- 14.5 T7 and T4 Genomes Show Functional Clustering 355 -- 14.6 Lambda Immediate Early and Delayed Early Genes Are Needed for Both Lysogeny and the Lytic Cycle 356 -- 14.7 Lytic Cycle Depends on Antitermination 357 -- 14.8 Lysogeny Is Maintained by Repressor Protein 359 -- 14.9 Repressor and Its Operators Define the Immunity Region 360 -- 14.10 DNA-Binding Form of Repressor Is a Dimer 361 -- 14.11 Repressor Uses a Helix-Turn-Helix Motif to Bind DNA 362 -- 14.12 Recognition Helix Determines Specificity for DNA 363 -- 14.13 Repressor Dimers Bind Cooperatively to the Operator 364 -- 14.14 Repressor at 0[subscript R]2 Interacts with RNA Polymerase at P[subscript RM] 365 -- 14.15 Repressor Maintains an Autogenous Circuit 366 -- 14.16 Cooperative Interactions Increase the Sensitivity of Regulation 367 -- 14.17 CII and cIII Genes Are Needed to Establish Lysogeny 368 -- 14.18 A Poor Promoter Requires cII Protein 369 -- 14.19 Lysogeny Requires Several Events 369 -- 14.20 Cro Repressor Is Needed for Lytic Infection 371 -- 14.21 What Determines the Balance Between Lysogeny and the Lytic Cycle? 373 -- 15 Replicon 376 -- 15.2 Replicons Can Be Linear or Circular 378 -- 15.3 Origins Can Be Mapped by Autoradiography and Electrophoresis 379 -- 15.4 Does Methylation at the Origin Regulate Initiation? 380 -- 15.5 Origins May Be Sequestered after Replication 381 -- 15.6 Each Eukaryotic Chromosome Contains Many Replicons 383 -- 15.7 Replication Origins Can Be Isolated in Yeast 384 -- 15.8 Licensing Factor Controls Eukaryotic Rereplication 385 -- 15.9 Licensing Factor Consists of MCM Proteins 386 -- 15.10 D Loops Maintain Mitochondrial Origins 388 -- 16 Extrachromosomal Replicons 392 -- 16.2 Ends of Linear DNA Are a Problem for Replication 393 -- 16.3 Terminal Proteins Enable Initiation at the Ends of Viral DNAs 394 -- 16.4 Rolling Circles Produce Multimers of a Replicon 396 -- 16.5 Rolling Circles Are Used to Replicate Phage Genomes 397 -- 16.6 F Plasmid Is Transferred by Conjugation between Bacteria 398 -- 16.7 Conjugation Transfers Single-Stranded DNA 400 -- 16.8 Bacterial Ti Plasmid Causes Crown Gall Disease in Plants 401 -- 16.9 T-DNA Carries Genes Required for Infection 402 -- 16.10 Transfer of T-DNA Resembles Bacterial Conjugation 405 -- 17 Bacterial Replication Is Connected to the Cell Cycle 408 -- 17.2 Replication Is Connected to the Cell Cycle 410 -- 17.3 Septum Divides a Bacterium into Progeny That Each Contain a Chromosome 411 -- 17.4 Mutations in Division or Segregation Affect Cell Shape 412 -- 17.5 FtsZ Is Necessary for Septum Formation 413 -- 17.6 min Genes Regulate the Location of the Septum 415 -- 17.7 Chromosomal Segregation May Require Site-Specific Recombination 415 -- 17.8 Partitioning Involves Separation of the Chromosomes 417 -- 17.9 Single-Copy Plasmids Have a Partitioning System 419 -- 17.10 Plasmid Incompatibility Is Determined by the Replicon 421 -- 17.11 ColE1 Compatibility System Is Controlled by an RNA Regulator 422 -- 17.12 How Do Mitochondria Replicate and Segregate? 424 -- 18 DNA Replication 428 -- 18.2 DNA Polymerases Are the Enzymes That Make DNA 430 -- 18.3 DNA Polymerases Have Various Nuclease Activities 431 -- 18.4 DNA Polymerases Control the Fidelity of Replication 432 -- 18.5 DNA Polymerases Have a Common Structure 433 -- 18.6 DNA Synthesis Is Semidiscontinuous 434 -- 18.7 [phi]X Model System Shows How Single-Stranded DNA Is Generated for Replication 435 -- 18.8 Priming Is Required to Start DNA Synthesis 437 -- 18.9 DNA Polymerase Holoenzyme Has Three Subcomplexes 439 -- 18.10 Clamp Controls Association of Core Enzyme with DNA 440 -- 18.11 Coordinating Synthesis of the Lagging and Leading Strands 442 -- 18.12 Okazaki Fragments Are Linked by Ligase 443
-- 18.13 Separate Eukaryotic DNA Polymerases Undertake Initiation and Elongation 444 -- 18.14 Phage T4 Provides Its Own Replication Apparatus 445 -- 18.15 Creating the Replication Forks at an Origin 448 -- 18.16 Common Events in Priming Replication at the Origin 450 -- 18.17 Primosome Is Needed to Restart Replication 451 -- 19 Homologous and Site-Specific Recombination 457 -- 19.2 Homologous Recombination Occurs between Synapsed Chromosomes 460 --
19.3 Breakage and Reunion Involves Heteroduplex DNA 462 -- 19.4 Double-Strand Breaks Initiate Recombination 464 -- 19.5 Recombining Chromosomes Are Connected by the Synaptonemal Complex 465 -- 19.6 Synaptonemal Complex Forms after Double-Strand Breaks 467 -- 19.7 Pairing and Synaptonemal Complex Formation Are Independent 469 -- 19.8 Bacterial RecBCD System Is stimulated by chi Sequences 470 -- 19.9 Strand-Transfer Proteins Catalyze Single-Strand Assimilation 471 -- 19.10 Ruv System Resolves Holliday Junctions 473 -- 19.11 Gene Conversion Accounts for Interallelic Recombination 475 -- 19.12 Supercoiling Affects the Structure of DNA 476 -- 19.13 Topoisomerases Relax or Introduce Supercoils in DNA 478 -- 19.14 Topoisomerases Break and Reseal Strands 480 -- 19.15 Gyrase Functions by Coil Inversion 481 -- 19.16 Specialized Recombination Involves Specific Sites 482 -- 19.17 Site-Specific Recombination Involves Breakage and Reunion 484 -- 19.18 Site-Specific Recombination Resembles Topoisomerase Activity 484 -- 19.19 Lambda Recombination Occurs in an Intasome 486 -- 19.20 Yeast Can Switch Silent and Active Loci for Mating Type 488 -- 19.21 MAT Locus Codes for Regulator Proteins 490 -- 19.22 Silent Cassettes at HML and HMR Are Repressed 492 -- 19.23 Unidirectional Transposition Is Initiated by the Recipient MAT Locus 493 -- 19.24 Regulation of HO Expression Controls Switching 494 -- 20 Repair Systems 499 -- 20.2 Repair Systems Correct Damage to DNA 502 -- 20.3 Excision Repair Systems in E. coli 503 -- 20.4 Excision-Repair Pathways in Mammalian Cells 504 -- 20.5 Base Flipping Is Used by Methylases and Glycosylases 506 -- 20.6 Error-Prone Repair and Mutator Phenotypes 507 -- 20.7 Controlling the Direction of Mismatch Repair 507 -- 20.8 Recombination-Repair Systems in E. coli 510 -- 20.9 Recombination Is an Important Mechanism to Recover from Replication Errors 511 -- 20.10 RecA Triggers the SOS System 513 -- 20.11 Eukaryotic Cells Have Conserved Repair Systems 515 -- 20.12 A Common System Repairs Double-Strand Breaks 516 -- 21 Transposons 521 -- 21.2 Insertion Sequences Are Simple Transposition Modules 524 -- 21.3 Composite Transposons Have IS Modules 525 -- 21.4 Transposition Occurs by Both Replicative and Nonreplicative Mechanisms 527 -- 21.5 Transposons Cause Rearrangement of DNA 528 -- 21.6 Common Intermediates for Transposition 530 -- 21.7 Replicative Transposition Proceeds through a Cointegrate 531 -- 21.8 Nonreplicative Transposition Proceeds by Breakage and Reunion 533 -- 21.9 TnA Transposition Requires Transposase and Resolvase 534 -- 21.10 Transposition of Tn10 Has Multiple Controls 536 -- 21.11 Controlling Elements in Maize Cause Breakage and Rearrangements 538 -- 21.12 Controlling Elements Form Families of Transposons 540 -- 21.13 Spm Elements Influence Gene Expression 542 -- 21.14 Role of Transposable Elements in Hybrid Dysgenesis 544 -- 21.15 P Elements Are Activated in the Germline 545 -- 22 Retroviruses and Retroposons 550 -- 22.2 Retrovirus Life Cycle Involves Transposition-Like Events 551 -- 22.3 Retroviral Genes Code for Polyproteins 552 -- 22.4 Viral DNA Is Generated by Reverse Transcription 554 -- 22.5 Viral DNA Integrates into the Chromosome 556 -- 22.6 Retroviruses May Transduce Cellular Sequences 558 -- 22.7 Yeast Ty Elements Resemble Retroviruses 559 -- 22.8 Many Transposable Elements Reside in Drosophila melanogaster 561 -- 22.9 Retroposons Fall into Three Classes 562 -- 22.10 Alu Family Has Many Widely Dispersed Members 564 -- 22.11 Processed Pseudogenes Originated as Substrates for Transposition 565 -- 22.12 LINES Use an Endonuclease to Generate a Priming End 566 -- 23 Immune Diversity 570 -- 23.2 Clonal Selection Amplifies Lymphocytes That Respond to Individual Antigens 574 -- 23.3 Immunoglobulin Genes Are Assembled from Their Parts in Lymphocytes 575 -- 23.4 Light Chains Are Assembled by a Single Recombination 577 -- 23.5 Heavy Chains Are Assembled by Two Recombinations 579 -- 23.6 Recombination Generates Extensive Diversity 580 -- 23.7 Immune Recombination Uses Two Types of Consensus Sequence 581 -- 23.8 Recombination Generates Deletions or Inversions 582 -- 23.9 Allelic Exclusion Is Triggered by Productive Rearrangement 582 -- 23.10 RAG Proteins Catalyze Breakage and Reunion 584 -- 23.11 Early Heavy Chain Expression Can Be Changed by RNA Processing 586 -- 23.12 Class Switching Is Caused by DNA Recombination 587 -- 23.13 Switching Occurs by a Novel Recombination Reaction 589 -- 23.14 Somatic Mutation Generates Additional Diversity in Mouse and Human Being 590 -- 23.15 Somatic Mutation Is Induced by Cytidine Deaminase and Uracil Glycosylase 591 -- 23.16 Avian Immunoglobulins Are Assembled from Pseudogenes 593 -- 23.17 B Cell Memory Allows a Rapid Secondary Response 594 -- 23.18 T Cell Receptors Are Related to Immunoglobulins 595 -- 23.19 T Cell Receptor Functions in Conjunction with the MHC 597 -- 23.20 Major Histocompatibility Locus Codes for Many Genes of the Immune System 599 -- 23.21 Innate Immunity Utilizes Conserved Signaling Pathways 602 -- 24 Promoters and Enhancers 609 -- 24.2 Eukaryotic RNA Polymerases Consist of Many Subunits 612 -- 24.3 Promoter Elements Are Defined by Mutations and Footprinting 613 -- 24.4 RNA Polymerase I Has a Bipartite Promoter 614 -- 24.5 RNA Polymerase III Uses Both Downstream and Upstream Promoters 615 -- 24.6 TF[subscript III]B Is the Commitment Factor for Pol III Promoters 616 -- 24.7 Startpoint for RNA Polymerase II 618 -- 24.8 TBP Is a Universal Factor 619 -- 24.9 TBP Binds DNA in an Unusual Way 620 -- 24.10 Basal Apparatus Assembles at the Promoter 621 -- 24.11 Initiation Is Followed by Promoter Clearance 623 -- 24.12 A Connection between Transcription and Repair 625 -- 24.13 Short Sequence Elements Bind Activators 627 -- 24.14 Promoter Construction Is Flexible but Context Can Be Important 628 -- 24.15 Enhancers Contain Bidirectional Elements That Assist Initiation 629 -- 24.16 Enhancers Contain the Same Elements That Are Found at Promoters 630 -- 24.17 Enhancers Work by Increasing the Concentration of Activators Near the Promoter 631 -- 24.18 Gene Expression Is Associated with Demethylation 632 -- 24.19 CpG Islands Are Regulatory Targets 634 -- 25 Activating Transcription 640 -- 25.2 There Are Several Types of Transcription Factors 642 -- 25.3 Independent Domains Bind DNA and Activate Transcription 643 -- 25.4 Two Hybrid Assay Detects Protein-Protein Interactions 645 -- 25.5 Activators Interact with the Basal Apparatus 646 -- 25.6 Some Promoter-Binding Proteins Are Repressors 648 -- 25.7 Response Elements Are Recognized by Activators 649 -- 25.8 There Are Many Types of DNA-Binding Domains 651 -- 25.9 A Zinc Finger Motif Is a DNA-Binding Domain 652 -- 25.10 Steroid Receptors Are Activators 653 -- 25.11 Steroid Receptors Have Zinc Fingers 655 -- 25.12 Binding to the Response Element Is Activated by Ligand-Binding 656 -- 25.13 Steroid Receptors Recognize Response Elements by a Combinatorial Code 657 -- 25.14 Homeodomains Bind Related Targets in DNA 658 -- 25.15 Helix-Loop-Helix Proteins Interact by Combinatorial Association 660 -- 25.16 Leucine Zippers Are Involved in Dimer Formation 662 -- 26 RNA Splicing and Processing 667 -- 26.2 Nuclear Splice Junctions Are Short Sequences 670 -- 26.3 Splice Junctions Are Read in Pairs 671 -- 26.4 Pre-mRNA Splicing Proceeds through a Lariat 673 -- 26.5 snRNAs Are Required for Splicing 674 -- 26.6 U1 snRNP Initiates Splicing 676 -- 26.7 E Complex Can Be Formed by Intron Definition or Exon Definition 678 -- 26.8 5 snRNPs Form the Spliceosome 679 -- 26.9 An Alternative Splicing Apparatus Uses Different snRNPs 681 -- 26.10 Splicing Is Connected to Export of mRNA 682 -- 26.11 Group II Introns Autosplice via Lariat Formation 683 -- 26.12 Alternative Splicing Involves Differential Use of Splice Junctions 685 -- 26.13 trans-Splicing Reactions Use Small RNAs 688 -- 26.14 Yeast tRNA Splicing Involves Cutting and Rejoining 690 -- 26.15 Splicing Endonuclease Recognizes tRNA 691 -- 26.16 tRNA Cleavage and Ligation Are Separate Reactions 692
-- 26.17 Unfolded Protein Response Is Related to tRNA Splicing 693 -- 26.18 3' Ends of polI and polIII Transcripts Are Generated by Termination 694 -- 26.19 3' Ends of mRNAs Are Generated by Cleavage and Polyadenylation 695 -- 26.20 Cleavage of the 3' End of Histone mRNA May Require a Small RNA 697 -- 26.21 Production of rRNA Requires Cleavage Events 697 -- 26.22 Small RNAs Are Required for rRNA Processing 699 -- 27 Catalytic RNA 706 --
27.2 Group I Introns Undertake Self-Splicing by Transesterification 707 -- 27.3 Group I Introns Form a Characteristic Secondary Structure 709 -- 27.4 Ribozymes Have Various Catalytic Activities 711 -- 27.5 Some Group I Introns Code for Endonucleases That Sponsor Mobility 715 -- 27.6 Group II Introns May Code for Multifunction Proteins 716 -- 27.7 Some Autosplicing Introns Require Maturases 717 -- 27.8 Catalytic Activity of RNAase P Is Due to RNA 718 -- 27.9 Viroids Have Catalytic Activity 718 -- 27.10 RNA Editing Occurs at Individual Bases 720 -- 27.11 RNA Editing Can Be Directed by Guide RNAs 721 -- 27.12 Protein Splicing Is Autocatalytic 724 -- 28 Chromosomes 729 -- 28.2 Viral Genomes Are Packaged into Their Coats 731 -- 28.3 Bacterial Genome Is a Nucleoid 734 -- 28.4 Bacterial Genome Is Supercoiled 735 -- 28.5 Eukaryotic DNA Has Loops and Domains Attached to a Scaffold 736 -- 28.6 Specific Sequences Attach DNA to an Interphase Matrix 737 -- 28.7 Chromatin Is Divided into Euchromatin and Heterochromatin 738 -- 28.8 Chromosomes Have Banding Patterns 740 -- 28.9 Lampbrush Chromosomes Are Extended 741 -- 28.10 Polytene Chromosomes Form Bands 742 -- 28.11 Polytene Chromosomes Expand at Sites of Gene Expression 743 -- 28.12 Eukaryotic Chromosome Is a Segregation Device 744 -- 28.13 Centromeres May Contain Repetitive DNA 746 -- 28.14 Centromeres Have Short DNA Sequences in S. cerevisiae 747 -- 28.15 Centromere Binds a Protein Complex 748 -- 28.16 Telomeres Have Simple Repeating Sequences 748 -- 28.17 Telomeres Seat the Chromosome Ends 749 -- 28.18 Telomeres Are Synthesized by a Ribonucleoprotein Enzyme 750 -- 28.19 Telomeres Are Essential for Survival 752 -- 29 Nucleosomes 757 -- 29.2 Nucleosome Is the Subunit of All Chromatin 759 -- 29.3 DNA Is Coiled in Arrays of Nucleosomes 761 -- 29.4 Nucleosomes Have a Common Structure 762 -- 29.5 DNA Structure Varies on the Nucleosomal Surface 763 -- 29.6 Periodicity of DNA Changes on the Nucleosome 766 -- 29.7 Organization of the Histone Octamer 767 -- 29.8 Path of Nucleosomes in the Chromatin Fiber 769 -- 29.9 Reproduction of Chromatin Requires Assembly of Nucleosomes 771 -- 29.10 Do Nucleosomes Lie at Specific Positions? 774 -- 29.11 Are Transcribed Genes Organized in Nucleosomes? 777 -- 29.12 Histone Octamers Are Displaced by Transcription 779 -- 29.13 Nucleosome Displacement and Reassembly Require Special Factors 781 -- 29.14 Insulators Block the Actions of Enhancers and Heterochromatin 781 -- 29.15 Insulators Can Define a Domain 783 -- 29.16 Insulators May Act in One Direction 784 -- 29.17 Insulators Can Vary in Strength 785 -- 29.18 DNAase Hypersensitive Sites Reflect Changes in Chromatin Structure 786 -- 29.19 Domains Define Regions That Contain Active Genes 788 -- 29.20 An LCR May Control a Domain 789 -- 29.21 What Constitutes a Regulatory Domain? 790 -- 30 Controlling Chromatin Structure 796 -- 30.2 Chromatin Can Have Alternative States 797 -- 30.3 Chromatin Remodeling Is an Active Process 798 -- 30.4 Nucleosome Organization May Be Changed at the Promoter 801 -- 30.5 Histone Modification Is a Key Event 802 -- 30.6 Histone Acetylation Occurs in Two Circumstances 805 -- 30.7 Acetylases Are Associated with Activators 806 -- 30.8 Deacetylases Are Associated with Repressors 808 -- 30.9 Methylation of Histones and DNA Is Connected 808 -- 30.10 Chromatin States Are Interconverted by Modification 809 -- 30.11 Promoter Activation Involves an Ordered Series of Events 809 -- 30.12 Histone Phosphorylation Affects Chromatin Structure 810 -- 30.13 Some Common Motifs Are Found in Proteins That Modify Chromatin 811 -- 31 Epigenetic Effects Are Inherited 818 -- 31.2 Heterochromatin Propagates from a Nucleation Event 820 -- 31.3 Heterochromatin Depends on Interactions with Histones 822 -- 31.4 Polycomb and Trithorax Are Antagonistic Repressors and Activators 824 -- 31.5 X Chromosomes Undergo Global Changes 826 -- 31.6 Chromosome Condensation Is Caused by Condensins 828 -- 31.7 DNA Methylation Is Perpetuated by a Maintenance Methylase 830 -- 31.8 DNA Methylation Is Responsible for Imprinting 832 -- 31.9 Oppositely Imprinted Genes Can Be Controlled by a Single Center 834 -- 31.10 Epigenetic Effects Can Be Inherited 835 -- 31.11 Yeast Prions Show Unusual Inheritance 836 -- 31.12 Prions Cause Diseases in Mammals 839.
Subject Genetics.
Genes.
Variant Title Genes 9.
Genes nine.
ISBN 9780763740634 (alk. paper)
0763740632 (alk. paper)
9780763752224 (international edition)