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LEADER 00000nam a2200385 a 4500 
008    040617s2002    ne       b    001 0 eng d 
010    2002035670 
020    9041198989 
035    .b28838981 
040    OrLoB|beng|cOrLoB|dVU 
050 04 K1082 .G36 2003 
082 04 346.096|221 
100 1  Gao, Xiang,|cL.L.M.|0
245 14 The fraud rule in the law of letters of credit :|ba 
       comparative study /|cby Xiang Gao. 
264  1 The Hague :|bKluwer Law International,|c2002. 
300    xiii, 203 pages ;|c25 cm. 
336    text|btxt|2rdacontent 
337    unmediated|bn|2rdamedia 
338    volume|bnc|2rdacarrier 
490 1  Global trade and finance series ;|vv. 2. 
504    Includes bibliographical references (pages 189-196) and 
505 0  1. The Letter of Credit and its Legal Framework -- 2. The 
       Fraud Rule: An Overview -- 3. The Standard of Fraud -- 4. 
       The Locus of Fraud -- 5. The Identity of the Fraudulent 
       Party -- 6. Presenters Immune from the Fraud Rule -- 7. 
       The Fraud Rule in the People's Republic of China. 
520 8  Dr. Gao finds the best provisions and practices in respect
       of the fraud rule in the United States, the United Kingdom,
       Canada, and Australia, and applies these standards to the 
       reformulation of the fraud rule in the PRC. In the process
       he        surveys the entire field of the fraud rule in 
       the law of letters of credit in its substantive aspects, 
       thus going deeper than        mere banking law analyses 
       and revealing, for the benefit of jurists everywhere, the 
       fundamental legal issues that must        underlie all 
       sound judicial reasoning in the area. In more practical 
       terms, this approach also allows judges to meet their     
       essential responsibility - that of giving an answer when a
       case is put before them - with the widest and best 
       possible degree of discernment."--BOOK JACKET. 
520 1  Although the letter of credit is essentially an 
       international nstrument with an age-old pedigree, a 
       troubling number of        serious disputes still founder 
       on national provisions with respect to the fraud rule (or 
       fraud exception). The rule is        embodied in several 
       major international agreements, but its adjudication takes
       place under national statutes in which - in         the 
       opinion of Judge Xiang Gao of the Supreme People's Court 
       of the People's Republic of China (PRC) - a significant 
       degree of further refinement and harmonization is called 
650  0 Letters of credit.|0
650  0 Fraud.|0 
830  0 Global trade and finance series ;|0
       authorities/names/n2002112741|vv. 2. 
907    .b28838981 
984    VU|b.b28838981|cheld 
990    MARCIVE MELB 201906 
990    Uploaded 20-07-04 nre 
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