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Cover Art
PRINTED BOOKS
Author Ray, William J., 1945-

Title Methods toward a science of behavior and experience / William J. Ray.

Published Australia ; Belmont, CA : Thomson/Wadsworth, [2003]
©2003

Copies

Location Call No. Status
 UniM Bund  150.72 RAY {Bund81 20190820}    AVAILABLE
Edition 7th ed.
Physical description xxii, 440 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references (pages [426]-435) and index.
Contents 1 What Is Science? 1 -- Science as a Way of Knowing 3 -- Scientific Approach 7 -- Early Approaches 8 -- Studying Behavior and Experience 14 -- Behavior: A Road into the Subjective Experience of Research Participants 17 -- People Who Perform Science 20 -- 2 Introduction to the Methods of Science 24 -- Naturalistic Observation 28 -- Correlational Approach 30 -- Experimental Method 32 -- Logic and Inference: The Detective Work of Science 37 -- Scientific Observation: The Raw Data of Science 44 -- Evaluating Scientific Research 46 -- Communication in Science 46 -- 3 Developing the Hypothesis 51 -- Making Our Hypotheses Concrete 52 -- Making Our Hypotheses Logical 55 -- Creating Testable Research Hypotheses and the Problem of Measurement 57 -- Ideas Come From Everywhere 60 -- Intuition and Revelation 68 -- Scientist's Guide to Having an Idea 69 -- Tools for Library Research 70 -- 4 Description of Behavior Through Numerical Representation 81 -- Measurement 82 -- Scales of Measurement 83 -- Measurement and Statistics 86 -- Pictorial Description of Frequency Information 87 -- Descriptive Statistics 90 -- Pictorial Presentations of Numerical Data 97 -- Transforming Data 98 -- Standard Scores 99 -- Measure of Association 100 -- 5 Inferential Statistics: Making Statistical Decisions 109 -- Probability 111 -- Normal Distribution 115 -- Hypothesis Testing 120 -- Example of Inferential Statistics: The t-Test 121 -- 6 Testing the Hypothesis: A Conceptual Introduction 127 -- Context of Experimentation: An Example 130 -- Types of Variation 131 -- Statistical Hypothesis Testing 134 -- Threats to Internal Validity 138 -- 7 Control: The Keystone of the Experimental Method 146 -- Control Achieved Through Participant Assignment and Selection 147 -- Randomization 153 -- Control Achieved Through Experimental Design 155 -- Control as Related to the Logic of Experimentation 158 -- 8 Applying the Logic of Experimentation: Between-Subjects Designs 163 -- Between-Subjects Design Terminology 164 -- Completely Randomized Design 165 -- Multilevel Completely Randomized Designs 165 -- Factorial Design 170 -- Factorial Designs: The Logic of Experimentation and the Interaction Effect 174 -- Eight Possible Outcomes of 2 x 2 Factorial Experiments 180 -- Interpretation of Subject Variables with Factorial Designs 187 -- Advantages of Factorial Designs 188 -- 9 Extending the Logic of Experimentation: Within-Subjects and Matched-Subjects Approaches 192 -- Within-Subjects Designs 193 -- Mixed Designs 201 -- Matched-Subjects Procedures 203 -- 10 Ecology of the Experiment: The Scientist and Research Participant in Relation to Their Environments 210 -- Ecology 213 -- Experimenter Factors 214 -- Subject Factors 222 -- Cultural and Social Bias 228 -- 11 Quasi-Experimental, Correlational, and Naturalistic Observational Designs 232 -- Closed and Open Systems 233 -- Quasi-Experimental Designs 241 -- Correlational Procedures 251 -- Naturalistic Observations 253 -- 12 Single-Subject Designs 261 -- Types of Single-Subject Designs 264 -- Case Study Designs 265 -- Experimental Single-Subject Designs 268 -- Alternative Types of Single-Subject Research 276 -- 13 Questionnaires, Survey Research, and Sampling 279 -- Question Construction and Formats 282 -- Methods of Administering a Survey 289 -- Sampling 294 -- Sample Size 299 -- Reliability and Validity 300 -- 14 Ethics 304 -- Ethical Considerations of Psychological Experimentation 306 -- Experiment as an Ethical Problem 308 -- Ingredients of the Initial Scientist-Participant Dialogue 308 -- Rights of the Research Participant and the Responsibilities of the Experimenter 310 -- What is Harmful to a Research Participant? 310 -- Ethical Guidelines of the American Psychological Association 311 -- Institutional Review Board 313 -- Deception Studies 315 -- Debriefing: When Is Enough Enough? 321 -- Participant as Colleague 322 -- Animals as Subjects 323 -- 15 Sharing the Results 331 -- Communication with Other Scientists: The Scientific Article 332 -- Preparing Your Article 332 -- Publishing Your Article 350 -- What Makes a Good Article? 351 -- 16 Beyond Method 356 -- Dimensions of Research 357 -- Beginning with a Question 359 -- Limitations to Finding Answers 360 -- Science as a Complex Human Process 364 -- Value in Science 366 -- Relevance 367 -- Science as a Means of Transcendence 368 -- Appendix A Guidelines to Reduce Biased Language in Scientific Writing 375 -- Appendix B Printed Article 387 -- Appendix C Article Manuscript 401.
Subject Psychology -- Research -- Methodology.
Psychology, Experimental.
ISBN 0534538673 (alk. paper)