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Cover Art
Author Rutkowski, Jan J., 1954-

Title Enhancing job opportunities : Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union / Jan J. Rutkowski, Stefano Scarpetta.

Published Washington, DC : World Bank, 2005.


Location Call No. Status
 UniM Store  F17158    AVAILABLE
Physical description 269 pages ; 25 cm
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index.
Contents Changing Labor Markets in the Region 5 -- Drivers of Labor Demand during the Transition 19 -- Role of the Region's Policy and Institutions 24 -- Policy Challenge: Promoting Job Creation in the Region 39 -- 2 Main Labor Market Developments during the Transition 61 -- An Economically Diverse Region with Differing Labor Markets 61 -- Unemployment and Underemployment: Major Economic and Social Problems 63 -- Rebounding Real Wages, but Widening Wage Differentials 88 -- Changing Nature of Jobs during the Transition 93 -- Labor Market Outcomes: Disappointing during the Transition? 97 -- Summary: Key Stylized Facts on Labor Market Transition in the Region 99 -- 3 Macroeconomic Policy, Output, and Employment: Is There Evidence of Jobless Growth? 107 -- Employment-Output Link during the Different Phases of the Transition 108 -- Any Role for Macropolicy to Influence the Employment-Output Link? 114 -- Summing Up: Employment Prospects in CEE and CIS Countries 118 -- 4 Restructuring, Productivity, and Job Creation 125 -- Required Transformation of the Transition Economies and Progress So Far 126 -- What Is the Role of Firm Restructuring and the Entry and Exit of Firms for Job Creation? 131 -- What Is the Role of Firm Restructuring and the Entry and Exit of Firms for Productivity and Output Growth? 137 -- What Drives Restructuring of Existing Firms? 147 -- How Many Firms Enter and Exit the Market in Transition Countries? 149 -- Summing Up: Entry Conditions and Incentives to Create Jobs Are Essential for Improving Job Creation in the Region 151 -- 5 Investment Climate and Job Creation 155 -- Importance of Investment Climate for Job Creation 157 -- Employers' Views on the Major Obstacles to Firms' Operation and Growth in the Region 158 -- Impact of Investment Climate on Job Creation in the Region 167 -- Investment Climate: International Comparisons and Variations within the Region 173 -- Summing Up: Promoting a Better Investment Climate to Foster Job Creation 183 -- 6 Labor Market Policy and Institutions: Combining Protection with Incentives for Job Creation 193 -- Role of Labor Market Policies and Institutions 194 -- Divergent Paths of Wage Determination during the Transition 194 -- Employment Protection Legislation Remains Strict despite Reforms, Although Enforcement Is Variable 209 -- Taxes on Labor 217 -- Role of Passive and Active Labor Market Programs 221 -- Summing Up: The Challenge of Labor Policy Reforms in Transition Economies 233 -- 1.1 Geopolitical Country Groups Reflect Economic and Institutional Differences among the Region's Countries 6 -- 1.2 In Most of the Region's Countries, Higher Investment Rates Are Necessary to Accelerate Economic Growth and Job Creation 40 -- 2.1 Do Geopolitical Groupings Help in Assessing the Economic Performance of the Transition Countries? 64 -- 2.2 Challenge of Job Creation in Turkey 68 -- 2.3 Employment in Moldova 69 -- 2.4 International Migration Patterns in the Region 72 -- 2.5 Growth and Job Creation in Low Income CIS Countries 78 -- 2.6 Relative Position of Women in the Labor Market Has Not Deteriorated during the Transition, and New Employment Opportunities for Women Emerged in the Expanding Services Sector 80 -- 2.7 Internal Migration in the Region in Search of Jobs 86 -- 2.8 An Increase in Educational Wage Premiums Has Been an Important Factor behind the Rise in Wage Inequality 90 -- 2.9 Surge in Informality during the Transition: Key Features and Policy Challenges 94 -- 3.1 An Empirical Investigation of the Possible Links between Employment, Output, and Macroeconomic Policy 119 -- 4.1 Economic Development and the Employment Structure 128 -- 4.2 A Consistent International Firm-Level Database 132 -- 4.3 Assessing the Impact of Labor Reallocation on Productivity Growth 138 -- 4.4 Decomposition of Productivity Growth Using Firm-Level Data 143 -- 5.1 Small Entrepreneurs Complain about the Business Environment in Bulgaria 158 -- 5.2 Service Sector Employment Rate as an Indicator of Job Creation Potential 168 -- 5.3 Stringent Employment Protection Regulations May Forestall Job Destruction, but at the Same Time They Discourage Job Creation 172 -- 5.4 What the Official Data on Entry Barriers Do Not Show: Romania 176 -- 6.1 Role of Labor Market Policies and Institutions: Some International Evidence 195 -- 6.2 Wage Bargaining in Estonia: A Radical Reformer 200 -- 6.3 Innovative Ways of Targeting the Poor 226 -- 6.4 Public Works and Workfare: An Alternative to the Unemployment Benefit? 228 -- 1.1 Payoff to Reforms in Transition Economies: Higher Output, but Still Insufficient Jobs, 1992-2003 2 -- 1.2 Unsynchronized Job Creation and Job Destruction Can Give Rise to Unemployment 9 -- 1.3 Unemployment Continues to Be High in Most Transition Economies 10 -- 1.4 Employment Rates Have Declined and Are below the Lisbon Target of 70 Percent 11 -- 1.5 Different Patterns of Labor Reallocation: The Czech Republic (CEE) vs. the Kyrgyz Republic (CIS) 15 -- 1.6 Wage Inequality in the CIS Is Higher than in the CEE 18 -- 1.7 Labor Reallocation Has Played an Increasing Role in Promoting Labor Productivity Growth in Russia 21 -- 1.8 Rate of Job Creation Is Higher for More Productive Firms in Moldova 22 -- 1.9 Firm Entry and Exit Are Critical for Productivity Growth 25 -- 1.10 Major Obstacles to Firm Activity, 2002 28 -- 1.11 Tax Wedge on Labor in the Region Is High, Often Higher than in Most OECD Countries 29 -- 1.12 Obstacles to Business Operation and Growth Vary by Subgroup 31 -- 1.13 Region's Countries Have More Stringent Regulations on Hiring and Firing than OECD Countries Do 37 -- 1.14 Labor Regulations Seem to Be a Binding Constraint Only in the New EU Member Countries and Not in the Other Parts of the Region 38 -- 1.15 Access to Finance Is More Difficult in Transition Economies than in Market Economies at Similar Income Levels 43 -- 1.16 Constraints Reported by Firms Vary across the Region's Countries 46 -- 2.1 Unemployment Is High in Most CEE and SEE Countries, 2003 67 -- 2.2 Employment-to-Population Ratio Is Low in Most of the Region's Countries 76 -- 2.3 More Workers Are Hired in Regions with a Developed Services Sector, Educated Workforce, and Infrastructure (Poland's Regions, 1997) 84 -- 2.4 Real Wages Have Rebounded in the Mid-1990s 89 -- 2.5 Wage Inequality in the CIS Is Higher than in the CEE 91 -- 2.6 Informal Sector Accounts for a Substantial Share of Total Employment, Especially in CIS 94 -- 3.1 Output per Capita Growth Is Largely Driven by Productivity Growth 109 -- 3.2 Inflationary Pressures Have Declined over Time in Most Countries 112 -- 3.3 Employment Adjustment Has Been More Marked in CEE than in CIS Countries 113 -- 3.4 Real-Wage Adjustments Have Been More Marked in CIS than in CEE Countries 114 -- 3.5 Real Interest Rates Have Increased in Recent Years in CEE Countries 115 -- 3.6 Share of Gross Fixed Capital Formation as a Percentage of GDP 116 -- 3.7 Share of GFCF and Productive GFCF as a Percentage of GDP 117 -- 3.8 Loosening of the Fiscal Stance in CEE Countries in Recent Years 118 -- 3.9 Real Wages in the Public Sector Have Increased More Rapidly than in the Private Sector in CEE Countries 122 -- 4.1 Different Patterns of Labor Reallocation across Transition Economies 129 -- 4.2 Large Job Flows in Transition Economies 134 -- 4.3 Unsynchronized Job Creation and Destruction Can Give Rise to Unemployment or Underemployment 135 -- 4.4 Job Flow Rates, Selected Transition Countries, 1990-2001 136 -- 4.5 Decomposition of Labor Productivity Growth, CEE Countries 140 -- 4.6 Contribution of Reallocation to Russian Labor-Productivity Growth, 1986-2001 144 -- 4.7 Sources of Productivity Growth in Transition and Emerging Economies 145 -- 4.8 Relationship between Net Entry Contribution and Productivity Growth of Incumbents 146 -- 4.9 Effects of Foreign and Domestic Privatization on Multifactor Productivity Growth (MFP) 148 -- 4.10 Effects of Foreign and Domestic Privatization on Productivity, Employment, and Wages 149 -- 4.11 How Many Firms Enter and Exit the Market? 150 -- 5.1 Most Frequently Reported Major Obstacles to Firm Operation in the Region 159 -- 5.2 Obstacles to Business Operation and Growth Vary by Subgroup 163
-- 5.3 Smaller Firms Are More Constrained by the Investment Climate 166 -- 5.4 Market Service Employment Is Higher in Countries with Easier Access to, and Lower Cost of, Credit 171 -- 5.5 Excessive Market Regulation Hurts Job Creation 171 -- 5.6 In Some of the Region's Subgroups, Time Spent Dealing with Government Regulations Is Still Substantial 174 -- 5.7 Protection of Property against Crime Can Be Costly 174 --
5.8 Firms in the Region Rely to a Lesser Degree on Capital Coming from Formal Institutions than Do Firms in Other Regions 175 -- 5.9 Starting a Business Is Not Easy in Many of the Region's Countries 178 -- 5.10 Job Creation in the Region Is Likely to Be Hampered by Difficult Access to Credit 180 -- 5.11 Markets in the Region Tend to Be Overregulated 181 -- 5.12 Corruption Is High in the Region 182 -- 6.1 Density and Bargaining Coverage, Early 2000s 198 -- 6.2 Minimum-Wage-to-Average-Wage Ratio, 2002 206 -- 6.3 Minimum Wage in Ukraine Accounts for a High Percentage of the Market Wage of Low-Skilled Workers, but It Is Not Enforced 207 -- 6.4 Employment Protection Legislation in EU-8 and Other Selected Countries during the Transition 212 -- 6.5 Transition Countries Have More-Stringent Regulations on Hiring and Firing than Do OECD Countries 213 -- 6.6 There Are Significant Differences within the Region's Countries on EPL 214 -- 6.7 Informality Tends to Be Higher in Countries with Strict EPL 216 -- 6.8 Region's Tax Wedge on Labor, 2003 218 -- 6.9 Tax Wedge on Labor, the Region, and OECD, Early 2000s 219 -- 6.10 Surge in the Tax Wedge in EU Transition Countries during the 1990s 220 -- 6.11 Unemployment Benefit Replacement Rates Have Declined in EU Transition Countries during the 1990s 223 -- 1.1 A Typology of Employment Protection Legislation and Enforcement 37 -- 1.2 A Summary of Key Policy Measures to Improve Labor Market Outcomes in Transition Economies of the Region 45 -- 2.1 Differences between Middle-Income European and Low-Income CIS Labor Markets 66 -- 2.2 Flows into and out of Unemployment 74 -- 2.3 Large Regional Disparities in Unemployment Rates, 2003 82 -- 3.1 Significant Changes in the Correlation between Macroeconomic Variables and Labor Market Indicators 111 -- 4.1 Employment Structure in CEE and CIS Countries 127 -- 4.2 Evolution of Productivity, Wages, and Unit Labor Costs 142 -- 5.1 Contribution of Investment Climate Components to Change in Service Sector Employment in the CEE EU Countries over the Past Decade 169 -- 5.2 Importance of Determinants of Job Creation Varies by Subgroup in the Region 172 -- 6.1 EPL and Enforcement Typology 215.
Summary Enhancing Job Opportunities: Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union addresses why labor market outcomes have been disappointing during the transition and suggests policy interventions that can foster job creation and reduce unemployment. The creation of more and better jobs requires firms to engage in strategic restructuring to a greater degree, so as to turn productivity gains into investments and expansion.
The authors recommend that countries in the Region pursue a two-pronged strategy: first and loremost, lower the costs of doing business to encourage investment and firm growth; and second, develop an adaptable labor market, where employers have incentives to hire and workers have incentives and skills to take available jobs.
Other author Scarpetta, Stefano.
Subject Job creation -- Europe, Eastern.
Job creation -- Former Soviet republics.
Labor market -- Europe, Eastern.
Labor market -- Former Soviet republics.
ISBN 9780821361955