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Book Cover
PRINTED BOOKS
Author Williams, Oscar R. (Oscar Renal), 1938-

Title African Americans and colonial legislation in the middle colonies / Oscar Williams.

Published New York : Garland Pub., 1998.

Copies

Location Call No. Status
 UniM Law  KM 208.58 G1 WILL    AVAILABLE
Physical description x, 120 pages ; 23 cm.
Series Studies in African American history and culture.
Studies in African American history and culture.
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references (pages 109-114) and index.
Contents Ch. I. Blacks under the Dutch. The Introduction of Blacks in New Netherlands. From Slave to "Half Slave" to Free Black in New Netherlands. Blacks and the Dutch Reformed Church -- Ch. II. An Overview of Slavery. New York. New Jersey. Pennsylvania -- Ch. III. The Formative Period of Black Status, 1664-1712. Duke's Law. New York. New Jersey. Pennsylvania -- Ch. IV. Insurrection and Its Effect Upon Black Status. White Reaction to Black Insurrectional Fear. Urban Regulations -- Ch. V. Manumission and Abolition -- Ch. VI. Conclusion -- Table I. Land Grants of the New Jersey Proprietors -- Table II. Official Census, 1790-1860.
Summary This study analyzes and compares legislation governing black life in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. The years from 1664 to 1712 witnessed the formative era of slavery in the middle colonies. By the beginning of the 18th century, specific laws governing African Americans were passed in response to their increasing number. The long range effects of the Insurrection of 1712 (which took the lives of nine whites and critically wounded five others) and the "Negro Conspiracy of 1741" produced extensive slave codes in New York and New Jersey. Pennsylvania took the more subtle approach of high tariffs, starting a tariff war against slavery.
Free blacks suffered under the harsh slave codes, as laws which restricted the movement of slaves also restricted the movement of free African Americans. Slaves were considered property protected by law, but free blacks were denied even this minor protection. Fear of insurrection led New York City, Albany, and Philadelphia to pass restrictive legislation. The greatest obstacle to freeing slaves was legislation requiring manumission bonds. As a result of a diversified economy, African Americans performed virtually every type of labor in the frontier communities of the middle colonies, and developed more skills than their southern counterparts. Eventually, the influx of whites provided cheap day labor that reduced dependency upon slave labor.
Subject African Americans -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- Middle Atlantic States -- History -- 18th century.
African Americans -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- Middle Atlantic States -- History -- 17th century.
Slavery -- Law and legislation -- Middle Atlantic States -- History -- 18th century.
Slavery -- Law and legislation -- Middle Atlantic States -- History -- 17th century.
African Americans -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- New York (State) -- History.
African Americans -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- New Jersey -- History.
African Americans -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- Pennsylvania -- History.
ISBN 0815330413 (acid-free paper)