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Cover Art
Author Chalmers, A. F. (Alan Francis), 1939- author.

Title One hundred years of pressure : hydrostatics from Stevin to Newton / Alan F. Chalmers.

Published Cham, Switzerland : Springer, 2017.


Location Call No. Status
Physical description 1 online resource (ix, 197 pages) : illustrations.
Series Archimedes, 1385-0180 ; volume 51
Archimedes (Dordrecht, Netherlands) ; v. 51.
Springer Physics and Astronomy eBooks 2017 English+International
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
Contents Acknowledgements; Contents; Chapter 1: Liquids: A Challenge for Seventeenth-Century Mechanics; 1.1 Introductory Remarks; 1.2 Some Puzzles Posed by Liquids in Equilibrium; 1.3 Understanding Liquids via a Technical Sense of Pressure; 1.4 Hydrostatics as an Extension of the Statics of Simple Machines; 1.5 Hydrostatics and the Scientific Revolution: Experiment and Mathematics; 1.6 Mechanism and the Mechanical Philosophy; 1.7 The Structure of the Book; References; Chapter 2: The Historical Background to Stevin's Hydrostatics.
2.1 Common Sense and Technological Knowledge of Liquids as Distinct from Solids2.2 The Science of Simple Machines: Statics; 2.3 Archimedes on Floatation; References; Chapter 3: Beyond Archimedes: Stevin's Elements of Hydrostatics; 3.1 Simon Stevin: Scientist/Engineer and Practical Mathematician; 3.2 Stevin's The Art of Weighing and the Euclidean Ideal; 3.3 Hydrostatics, the Euclidean Ideal and Stevin's Postulates; 3.4 Stevin's Derivation of Archimedes' Principle; 3.5 The Force on a Horizontal Plane; 3.6 The Force on a Vertical Plane.
3.7 The Significance of the Invalidity of Stevin's Arguments3.8 The Practice of Hydrostatics and Empirical Support; 3.9 Euclidean Explanations and Mechanistic Explanations; 3.10 Stevin's Terminology and the Concept of Pressure; 3.11 Where to from Here?; References; Chapter 4: Galileo, Floating Bodies and the Balance; 4.1 The Context of Galileo's Account of Floatation; 4.2 Floating Compared with a Balance with Equal Arms; 4.3 The Inadequacy of the Analogy with an Equal-Armed Balance; 4.4 Floatation Compared to a Balance with Unequal Arms; 4.5 Some Reflections on Galileo's Account of Floatation.
6.1 The Context of Pascal's Hydrostatics6.2 Pascal's Style of Reasoning Compared to That of Stevin; 6.3 Pascal's Theory of Hydrostatics; 6.4 Elaborations and Applications of Pascal's Hydrostatics; 6.5 Pascal's Hydrostatics and Experiment; 6.6 Pascal's Hydrostatics in Perspective; References; Chapter 7: Experimenting with Air; 7.1 Torricelli's Experiment and Responses to It; 7.2 Torricelli on the Weight and Rarefaction of Air; 7.3 Experiments with Air in the Wake of Torricelli; 7.4 Pascal's Treatise on the Weight of the Mass of the Air; 7.5 Pecquet and Air's Elater; References.
Summary This monograph investigates the development of hydrostatics as a science. In the process, it sheds new light on the nature of science and its origins in the Scientific Revolution. Readers will come to see that the history of hydrostatics reveals subtle ways in which the science of the seventeenth century differed from previous periods. The key, the author argues, is the new insights into the concept of pressure that emerged during the Scientific Revolution. This came about due to contributions from such figures as Simon Stevin, Pascal, Boyle and Newton. The author compares their work with Galileo and Descartes, neither of whom grasped the need for a new conception of pressure. As a result, their contributions to hydrostatics were unproductive. The story ends with Newton insofar as his version of hydrostatics set the subject on its modern course. He articulated a technical notion of pressure that was up to the task. Newton compared the mathematical way in hydrostatics and the experimental way, and sided with the former. The subtleties that lie behind Newton's position throws light on the way in which developments in seventeenth-century science simultaneously involved mathematization and experimentation. This book serves as an example of the degree of conceptual change that new sciences often require. It will be of interest to those involved in the study of history and philosophy of science. It will also appeal to physicists as well as interested general readers.
Other author SpringerLink issuing body.
Subject Hydrostatics.
Electronic books.
ISBN 9783319565293 (electronic bk.)
331956529X (electronic bk.)
9783319565286 (print)
Standard Number 10.1007/978-3-319-56529-3