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Cover Art
PRINTED BOOKS
Author Bhopal, Raj S.

Title Concepts of epidemiology : an integrated introduction to the ideas, theories, principles and methods of epidemiology / Raj S. Bhopal.

Published Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2002.

Copies

Location Call No. Status
 UniM BioMed  614.4 BHOP    AVAILABLE
Physical description xxviii, 317 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index.
Contents 1 What is epidemiology? The nature and scope of a biological, social, and ecological science and of epidemiological variables and outcomes 1 -- 1.1 Individual and the population 1 -- 1.2 Definition of epidemiology and statement of its central paradigm 2 -- 1.3 Directions in epidemiology and its uses 3 -- 1.4 Epidemiology as a science, practice, and craft 4 -- 1.5 Nature of epidemiological variables 7 -- 1.6 A disease and health problem: an illustration of the interdependence of clinical medicine and epidemiology 11 -- 1.7 Seeking the theoretical foundations of epidemiology 14 -- 2 Epidemiological concept of population 17 -- 2.1 Individual and the population 17 -- 2.2 Harnessing heterogeneity in individual and group level disease and risk factor patterns 21 -- 2.3 Disease patterns as a manifestation of individuals living in changing social groups 22 -- 2.4 Sick populations and sick individuals 26 -- 2.5 Individual and population level epidemiological variables 31 -- 2.6 Epidemiology and demography: interdependent population sciences 33 -- 2.7 Dynamic nature of human population 39 -- 2.8 Applications of the population concept 40 -- 3 Variation in disease by time, place, and person: A framework for analysis 44 -- 3.2 Reasons for analysing disease variations 45 -- 3.3 Variations and associations: real or artefact? 47 -- 3.4 Applying the real-artefact framework 52 -- 3.5 Disease clustering and clusters in epidemiology 59 -- 3.6 Applications of observations of disease variation 67 -- 3.7 Epidemiological theory underpinning or arising from this chapter 68 -- 4 Variation: Role of error, bias, and confounding 69 -- 4.2 A classification of error and bias 72 -- 4.3 A practical application of the research chronology schema of bias and error 92 -- 5 Cause and effect: The epidemiological approach 98 -- 5.1 Introduction: causality in science and philosophy 98 -- 5.2 Epidemiological causal strategy and reasoning: the example of Semmelweiss 101 -- 5.3 Models of cause in epidemiology 103 -- 5.4 Guidelines for epidemiological reasoning on cause and effect 115 -- 5.5 Epidemiological theory illustrated by this chapter 130 -- 6 Natural history, spectrum, iceberg, population patterns, and screening: Interrelated concepts in the epidemiology of disease 133 -- 6.1 Natural history of disease 134 -- 6.2 Population pattern of disease 139 -- 6.4 Unmeasured burden of disease: the metaphors of the iceberg and the pyramid 142 -- 6.5 Screening 145 -- 6.6 Applications of the concepts of natural history, spectrum, and screening 156 -- 6.7 Epidemiological theory: symbiosis with clinical medicine and social sciences 160 -- 7 Concept of risk and measures of disease frequency: Incidence and prevalence 163 -- 7.1 Introduction: risks, risk factors, and causes 163 -- 7.2 Quantifying disease frequency, risk factors, and their relationships 164 -- 7.3 Incidence and incidence rate: the concepts of incidence density, person-time incidence and cumulative incidence 167 -- 7.4 Numerator 173 -- 7.5 Denominator 178 -- 7.6 Prevalence and prevalence rate 179 -- 7.7 Relationship of incidence and prevalence 185 -- 7.8 Choice of incidence or prevalence 188 -- 7.9 Presenting rates 188 -- 8 Presentation and interpretation of epidemiological data on risk 191 -- 8.2 Proportional morbidity or mortality ratio (PMR) 192 -- 8.3 Adjusted overall rates: standardization and the calculation of the SMR (Standardized mortality ratio) 194 -- 8.4 Relative measure: relative risk 198 -- 8.5 Odds ratio (OR) 202 -- 8.6 Measurements to assess the impact of a risk factor in groups and populations 207 -- 8.7 Presentation and interpretation of epidemiological data in applied settings 214 -- 8.8 Avoidable morbidity and mortality 217 -- 8.9 Comparison of summary measures of health status 218 -- 8.10 DALY, disability adjusted life years, and QALY, quality adjusted life years 220 -- 8.12 Describing the health status of a population 223 -- 8.13 Construction and development of health status indicators 226 -- 9 Study design 231 -- 9.1 Introduction: interdependence of study design 231 -- 9.2 Classifications of study design: five dichotomies 234 -- 9.3 Case-series: clinical and population based 235 -- 9.4 Cross-sectional study 242 -- 9.5 Case-control study 247 -- 9.6 Cohort study 251 -- 9.7 Trials 255 -- 9.8 Overlap in the conceptual basis of the case-series, cross-sectional, case-control, cohort, and trial designs 257 -- 9.9 Ecological studies: design or analysis? 262 -- 9.10 Size of the study 263 -- 9.11 Data analysis and interpretation 264 -- 10 Theoretical, ethical, contextual, practical, and critical foundations for future epidemiology 267 -- 10.1 Interrelationship of theory, methods, and application: a question of values 267 -- 10.2 Fundamental influences on health 269 -- 10.3 Setting priorities in health and health care 271 -- 10.4 Impact on health of local polluting industries: Teesside study of environment and health 274 -- 10.5 Paradigms: the evolution of epidemiology 276 -- 10.6 Epidemiology: forces for change 277 -- 10.7 Scope of epidemiology and specialization 278 -- 10.8 Context of epidemiological practice--academic and service, USA and UK 279 -- 10.9 Practice of epidemiology in public health 280 -- 10.10 Ethical basis and proper conduct of epidemiology: the need for a code 281 -- 10.11 Ethical guidelines 284 -- 10.12 Critical appraisal in epidemiology: separating fact from error and fallacy 285 -- 10.13 Some questions relevant to the appraisal of epidemiological research 289 -- 10.14 Building on an epidemiological education: role of historical landmarks 291 -- 10.15 Building on an epidemiological education: a reflection on the future of epidemiology 293.
Summary "Concepts in Epidemiology explains and illustrates the language, principles, and methods underlying the science of epidemiology, and its applications to policy making, health service planning and health promotion. Illustrated, there are exercises to help readers deepen their understanding, with detailed material captured in tables. Each chapter ends in a summary, and all technical and specialized terminology is explained and defined in a glossary. The book places particular emphasis on integrating the ideas of epidemiology."--BOOK JACKET.
Subject Epidemiology.
ISBN 0192631551 (paperback) £22.50
0192631551 (paperback: alk. paper)
0192631551 (paperback)