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Cover Art
E-RESOURCE
Author Biswas, S. (Sukumar)

Title Cosmic perspectives in space physics / by Sukumar Biswas.

Published Dordrecht ; Boston : Kluwer, 2000.

Copies

Location Call No. Status
 UniM INTERNET resource    AVAILABLE
Physical description 1 online resource (xxii, 495 pages) : illustrations.
Series Astrophysics and space science library ; volume 242
Astrophysics and space science library ; v. 242.
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references (pages 473-489) and index.
Contents 1.1 Early History of Space Physics 1 -- 1.2 New Space Age and Global Plans 4 -- 1.2.1 IGY and International Collaborations in Space Research 4 -- 1.2.2 Development of Launch Vehicles for Satellites 6 -- 1.2.3 Sputnik and the Explorer 9 -- 1.3 Space Vehicles and Space Physics 14 -- 1.3.1 Balloons for space research 14 -- 1.3.2 Sounding rockets for space research 21 -- 1.3.3 Satellites for space research 22 -- Chapter 2 Magnetosphere of the Earth 31 -- 2.1 Early Concepts 31 -- 2.2 Experimental Methods in Space Studies and Observations 32 -- 2.3 Structure of the Magnetosphere 36 -- 2.4 Motion of Charged Particles in the Magnetosphere 40 -- 2.4.1 Stormer Theory, Main Cone and Shadow Cone 40 -- 2.4.2 Cosmic Ray Trajectories in the Geomagnetic Field 54 -- 2.5 Radiation Belts of the Earth 60 -- 2.5.1 Early Studies and the Discovery 60 -- 2.5.2 Observations and General Properties of the Belts 63 -- 2.5.3 Dynamics of Charged Particles in Radiation Belts 69 -- 2.5.4 Origin of the Trapped Radiation Belts 76 -- 2.5.5 New Radiation Belt from Trapped Anomalous Cosmic Rays 80 -- 2.6 Heavy Ions in the Magnetosphere of the Earth 82 -- Chapter 3 Sun and the Heliosphere 87 -- 3.1 Sun and Space Astrophysics 87 -- 3.1.1 General Features of the Sun 87 -- 3.1.2 Solar Energy Source 89 -- 3.1.3 Solar Instruments in Space Craft 90 -- 3.2 Sunspots and the Solar Cycles 91 -- 3.2.1 General Features of Sunspots 91 -- 3.2.2 Sunspot Cycles 92 -- 3.3 Solar Wind 94 -- 3.3.2 Parker's Theory of the Solar Wind 95 -- 3.3.3 Observations of the Solar Wind 97 -- 3.4 Solar and Interplanetary Magnetic Fields 101 -- 3.4.1 Observations of Interplanetary Magnetic Fields 101 -- 3.4.2 General Field of the Sun and Solar Plasma 106 -- 3.4.3 Coronal and Heliospheric Magnetic Fields 111 -- 3.4.4 Magnetohydrodynamics and Solar Plasma 114 -- 3.5 Active Sun 123 -- 3.5.1 Solar Activity 123 -- 3.5.2 Solar Flares 126 -- 3.5.3 Solar Radio Emission 131 -- 3.5.4 Solar X-ray Bursts 141 -- 3.5.5 Solar Flare Gamma Rays and Neutrons 148 -- 3.5.6 Plasma Emissions of the Active Sun 152 -- 3.6 Outer Heliosphere 157 -- 3.6.2 Deep Space Probes and General Features of the Heliosphere 157 -- 3.6.3 Heliosphere in 3-dimensions 159 -- 3.6.4 Heliosphere Boundary Regions 161 -- Chapter 4 Moon and the Planets 165 -- 4.1 Moon 165 -- 4.1.1 Spacecraft in Lunar Explorations 165 -- 4.1.2 General Features and Early Studies 165 -- 4.1.3 Composition of Lunar Rocks and Soil 167 -- 4.1.4 Magnetic Field of the Moon 170 -- 4.1.5 Interior of the Moon 171 -- 4.1.6 Origin of the Moon 172 -- 4.2 Space Missions and Planetary Exploration 173 -- 4.2.1 Early Planetary Missions 173 -- 4.2.2 Deep Space Probes 173 -- 4.3 Inner Planets 174 -- 4.3.1 Mercury 176 -- 4.3.2 Venus 177 -- 4.3.3 Mars 180 -- 4.4 Asteroid Belt 183 -- 4.4.1 General Features and Orbits 183 -- 4.4.2 Masses, Densities and Composition 184 -- 4.4.3 Origin and Evolution of Asteroids 185 -- 4.4.4 Asteroids and Earth Impacts 186 -- 4.5 Outer Planets 187 -- 4.5.1 General Features 187 -- 4.5.2 Jupiter 187 -- 4.5.3 Saturn 191 -- 4.5.4 Uranus and Neptune 195 -- 4.5.5 Pluto 198 -- Chapter 5 Comets, Meteorites and the origin of the Solar System 201 -- 5.1 Comets and Cometary Probes 201 -- 5.1.2 Cometary Orbits 202 -- 5.1.3 Cometary Probes of Halley 202 -- 5.1.4 Nucleus of Halley 203 -- 5.2 Oort Cloud and the Origin of Comets 205 -- 5.2.1 Long Period Comets 205 -- 5.2.2 Oort's Cloud and the Origin of LPC 206 -- 5.2.3 Origin of Comets 208 -- 5.3 Meteorites 209 -- 5.3.1 General Features 209 -- 5.3.2 Classes of Meteorites 210 -- 5.3.3 Orbits 212 -- 5.3.4 Composition 213 -- 5.3.5 Isotopic Composition 215 -- 5.3.6 Rare gases in meteorites 218 -- 5.4 Interplanetary Dust 222 -- 5.5 Origin and Early History of the Solar System 223 -- 5.5.1 General Features of the Solar Nebula 223 -- 5.5.2 Mass and Density of the Solar Nebula 225 -- 5.5.3 Formation of the Planetary System 226 -- 5.5.4 T-Tauri Phase of the Sun 227 -- 5.5.5 Isotopic Anomalies and the Origin of the Solar System 228 -- Chapter 6 Solar Energetic Particles 233 -- 6.1 General Features and Early Observations 233 -- 6.2 Observational Methods and Early Results 234 -- 6.2.1 Neutron Monitors and Ground Level Events 234 -- 6.2.2 Balloon Studies and PCA events 236 -- 6.2.3 Rocket Studies of Solar Energetic Particles (SPICE) 239 -- 6.2.4 Satellites and Solar Energetic Particles 246 -- 6.2.5 Space Vehicles and SEP in Deep Space 247 -- 6.3 Properties of Energetic Solar Particles 250 -- 6.3.1 Intensity and Energy Spectrum 250 -- 6.3.2 Elemental Abundances 253 -- 6.3.3 Isotopic Composition 260 -- 6.3.4 Ionization States of SEP 266 -- 6.4 Coronal and Interplanetary Propagation of SEP 268 -- 6.4.1 Coronal Propagation 268 -- 6.4.2 Interplanetary Propagation 270 -- 6.4.3 Propagation Effects and Ground Level Events (GLE's) 271 -- 6.4.4 Spacecraft observations 272 -- 6.5 Solar Energetic Particles in the Distant Past 274 -- 6.5.1 Intensities of SEP 274 -- 6.5.2 Charge Composition 276 -- 6.6 Acceleration of Particles in the Sun 277 -- 6.6.1 Energy Release 277 -- 6.6.2 Impulsive Flares 278 -- 6.6.3 Magnetic Field Reconnection Process 279 -- 6.6.4 High Energy or Gradual Events 280 -- Chapter 7 Galactic Cosmic Rays 283 -- 7.1 Early Studies and General Features 283 -- 7.1.1 Early Years of Cosmic Rays 283 -- 7.1.2 General Features of Cosmic Rays 286 -- 7.1.3 Definitions and Nomenclatures 288 -- 7.2 Interactions of Cosmic Rays with Matter 291 -- 7.2.1 Ionization loss of charged particles in matter 291 -- 7.2.2 Inelastic Interactions of Cosmic Ray Particles 296 -- 7.2.3 Interactions of Gamma Rays with Matter 300 -- 7.2.4 Electron Photon Cascades 309 -- 7.3 Methods of Studies of Cosmic Ray Nuclei 312 -- 7.3.1 Detectors of Low Energy Cosmic Rays [similar] 10-1000 MeV 312 -- 7.3.2 Detectors of High Energy ([similar] 1-1000 GeV) Cosmic Rays 317 -- 7.3.3 Detectors of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (E> 1 TeV) 322 -- 7.3.4 Detection of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (E> 10[superscript 14] eV) by Extensive Air Showers 324 -- 7.4 Properties of Cosmic Rays and their Implications 326 -- 7.4.1 Anomalous Cosmic Rays (ACR) 326 -- 7.4.2 Low Energy Galactic Cosmic Rays ([similar] 10 MeV/N-100 GeV/N) 334 -- 7.4.3 High Energy Cosmic Rays (10[superscript 12] -- 10[superscript 14] eV) 348 -- 7.4.4 Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (E [bsime] 10[superscript 14]-10[superscript 21] eV) 350 -- 7.5 Cosmic Ray Propagation in Interplanetary Space 354 -- 7.5.1 General Features 354 -- 7.5.2 11 Year Solar Cycle Variations of Cosmic Ray Intensities 355 -- 7.6 Cosmic Ray Propagation in Interstellar Space 358 -- 7.6.1 General Features and Models 358 -- 7.7 Origin of Cosmic Rays 363 -- 7.7.1 Early Concepts and General Features 363 -- 7.7.2 Basic Acceleration Mechanisms 364 -- 7.7.3 Possible Sources of Cosmic Rays 370 -- Chapter 8 Space Astrophysics 381 -- 8.1 New Astrophysics from Space Observatories 381 -- 8.1.1 Infrared Astronomy from Space 381 -- 8.1.2 Astrophysics with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) 388 -- 8.2 New Windows to the Universe 392 -- 8.2.1 Ultra Violet (UV) Astrophysics 393 -- 8.2.2 Extreme Ultra Violet (EUV) Astrophysics 395 -- 8.2.3 X-ray Astronomy 401 -- 8.2.4 Gamma Ray Astronomy 410 -- 8.3 Cosmology from Space 425 -- 8.3.1 Cosmic X-ray Background and Cosmology 425 -- 8.3.2 Extra Galactic Gamma Ray Background and Cosmology 430 -- 8.3.3 Cosmic Microwave Background, COBE and Cosmology 435 -- 8.3.4 Non-standard Model of Cosmology and CMB Radiation 439 -- 8.3.5 Search for Exotic Dark Matter 441 -- Chapter 9 Interstellar Medium (ISM) 445 -- 9.1 General Features 445 -- 9.2 Large Scale Dynamical Processes 445 -- 9.2.1 Large Scale Rotation 445 -- 9.2.2 Heating of the ISM 446 -- 9.3 Physical Features of the ISM 448 -- 9.3.1 Neutral and Molecular Hydrogen and their Distributions 448 -- 9.3.2 Main Phases of the Interstellar Medium 450 -- 9.4 Interstellar Dust 452 -- 9.5 Interstellar Molecules 454 -- 9.5.1 Types and Abundances 454 -- 9.5.2 Molecular Emission Processes 454 -- 9.5.3 Molecular Synthesis in GAS Phase Reactions 456 -- 9.5.4 Molecular Synthesis on Dust Surfaces 458 -- 9.6 Organic Molecules in Large Molecular Clouds 459 -- 9.6.1 Formation of Large Hydrocarbon Molecules 459 -- 9.6.2 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) 461 -- 9.7 Origin of Life: Terrestrial vs Extra Terrestrial 462 -- 9.7.1 General Concepts 462 -- 9.7.2 Meteorites and Organic Molecules 464 -- 9.7.3 Interplanetary Dust and Organics 465 -- 9.7.4 Comets as Couriers 465 -- 9.7.5 Martian Enigma 466 -- 9.7.6 Riddle of Life 467.
Summary This textbook provides an introduction to the fundamentals of space physics and astrophysics and covers the recent progress in various aspects of these fields. In the introductory Chapter 1, a brief historical account of space research is given, followed by short reviews of the space vehicles used and some aspects of the early years of space research. In Chapter 2, the reader is introduced to the discoveries of the radiation belts and the magnetosphere of the Earth. Chapter 3 begins with the phenomena of the quiet Sun, followed by processes in the active Sun (solar flares, radio bursts and X-ray, gamma-ray and neutron emissions). In Chapters 4 and 5, attention is paid to the physical features and properties of large bodies and aggregates in the matter of the solar system, emphasising discoveries obtained from spacecraft. In Chapter 6 solar energetic particles are presented, bringing out their dual role - as a sample of accelerated matter from the Sun and as a sensitive probe of the interplanetary fields in the heliosphere. Chapter 7 presents a discussion on galactic cosmic rays, explaining the basic features and main findings. Highlights of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays and possible origins are included. Chapter 8 presents exciting results of extreme UV, infra-red, X-rays and gamma-rays from space. These are followed by outlines of the new vistas of cosmological problems as revealed by the cosmic background measurements of X-rays, gamma-rays and microwaves. In Chapter 9, the reader is introduced to the physical and dynamical properties of the interstellar medium. This chapter concludes with the astrophysical aspects of the search for the origin of life. In the concluding Chapter 10 some general trends and future directions are briefly presented. The level of presentation is aimed at senior undergraduate students who are familiar with introductory physics. Graduate students will find more advanced topics discussed through their underlying features. Each chapter is followed by a number of problems; solving these will enable students to obtain a good grasp of the topics.
Notes Description based on print version record.
Subject Astrophysics.
Space sciences.
Ruimteonderzoek.
Astrofysica.
Astrophysique.
Astrophysics.
Space sciences.
Electronic books.
ISBN 9789401146517 (electronic bk.)
9401146519 (electronic bk.)
0792358139
9780792358138
Standard Number 10.1007/978-94-011-4651-7