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Cover Art
Author Napoleoni, Loretta.

Title Modern jihad : tracing the dollars behind the terror networks / Loretta Napoleoni.

Published London ; Sterling, Va. : Pluto Press, [2003]


Location Call No. Status
 UniM Bail  303.625 NAPO    AVAILABLE
Physical description xxiii, 295 pages ; 24 cm
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references (pages 262-273) and index.
Contents Prologue--11 September: a former member of an Italian armed group reflects on old and new terror xix -- Part I Cold War Years: The Economic Dependency of Terror -- 1. Dilemma of Terrorism: War or Crime? How 11 September could have been avoided had the US regarded the first bombing of the World Trade Center as an act of war instead of a domestic crime 3 -- 2. Macroeconomics of Terror: The birth of modern armed groups: from the ashes of the colonial war to the war by proxy of the Cold War. Terror becomes a political reality 11 -- 3. Privatisation of Terror: Armed groups search for financial independence. How Arafat transformed the PLO into the independent economic engine of the Palestinians' struggle for self-determination 29 -- 4. Terror Reaganomics: Terror mavericks and guns for hire; Arab countries get involved in sponsoring armed groups. Terror becomes business 47 -- Part II New Economic Disorder -- 5. Birth of the Terror State-Shell: How armed groups shaped their own state using war economics instead of nationalism and political consensus 63 -- 6. Towards a New World Disorder: The anti-Soviet Jihad, a pyrrhic victory for the US and its Muslim allies. From the ashes of the Soviet bloc a new enemy rises: Islamist terror 79 -- 7. Islamist Economics: The legacy of the anti-Soviet Jihad: the spread of Islamist armed groups in Central Asia and in the Caucasus 87 -- 8. Terror Jihad: The Islamist Crusades: Modern Jihad: Osama bin Laden and his Islamist followers wage a crusade against the economic hegemony of the West and its Muslim allies 96 -- 9. Islamist Financial Colonisation: Islamic banking and finance penetrate Muslim countries in the Balkans, Caucasus and Central Asia, paving the way for Islamist armed insurgency 105 -- 10. Economic Forces of Islamist Colonisation: Emerging new social classes in Arab countries back financially the spreading of Islamist insurgency to end the economic hegemony of the West: bankers, traders and businessmen 117 -- 11. Mosque Network: Mosques as a powerful international recruiting ground of the Modern Jihad 128 -- Part III New Economy of Terror -- 12. Weak States: Breeding Ground for Terror: Armed groups' strongholds across the world: Sudan, Afghanistan, Sierra Leone 139 -- 13. From Modern Jihad to the New Economy of Terror: Under the umbrella of the Modern Jihad, Islamist and non-Islamist armed groups become business partners creating the New Economy of Terror. Terror becomes an international economic system 147 -- 14. Terror's Legitimate Business: The many legitimate businesses run by armed organisations from the IRA to al-Qaeda 158 -- 15. Terror's Balance of Payments: From charities to crime; how terror economies generate and redistribute wealth 166 -- 16. State-Shell Economics: Armed groups' expenditure; a cost-benefit analysis of suicide bombers 177 -- 17. Globalisation of the New Economy of Terror: How big is the New Economy of Terror? A fast-growing illegal economy twice the size of the United Kingdom's GDP 188.
Summary "Modern Jihad: The New Economy of Terror" propels the reader into the netherworld of illegal organizations. From the Contras to Al Qaeda, Loretta Napoleoni maps out the arteries of an international economic system that feeds armed groups the world over with an endless supply of cash. Chasing terror money, she takes the reader from CIA headquarters to the smuggling routes of the Far East, from the back rooms of Wall Street to Hawala exchanges in the Middle East.The "economy of terror" that Napoleoni identifies is a 1.5 trillion-dollar fast-growing economic system. It is made up of illegal businesses such as arms and narcotics trading, oil and diamonds smuggling, as well as charitable donations, profits from legal businesses and an intricate system of finance. Most importantly, Napoleoni reveals the interdependency between economies run by armed groups and western economies. This ranges from the consumption of narcotics to the production of arms, and from the recycling of illegal money to speculation on the stock markets, as occurred prior to 9/11.Loretta Napoleoni is the first author to tackle the issues raised by September 11th 2001 from a specifically economic perspective. Presenting an astonishing array of evidence, taken from extensive research and interviews, the book is a fascinating account of controversial issues that lie at the heart of many of today's international problems. Revealing how the 'new economy of terror' has evolved by proxy through various wars -- from the Cold War to Al Qaeda -- Napoleoni argues that today's Islamic terror groups are driven by real economic forces in the Muslim world. They are the same forces that have been hindered in the last century by theeconomic interests of both the West and its allies, the oligarchic powers of the Middle East.Shifting the focus away from religious and cultural differences, Napoleoni assesses the full extent of the role of the West in developing the economies of armed organisations and provides a valuable insight into real factors dividing "East" and "West."
Subject Terrorism -- History.
Terrorism -- Economic aspects.
Variant Title Tracing the dollars behind the terror networks.
ISBN 0745321178 (hardback)