Edition 
3rd ed. 
Physical description 
xxiv, 584 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm 
Bibliography 
Includes bibliographical references (page [575]) and index. 
Contents 
SI system of units and British equivalents xx  1 Creep and shrinkage of concrete and relaxation of steel 1  1.2 Creep of concrete 2  1.3 Shrinkage of concrete 4  1.4 Relaxation of prestressed steel 5  1.5 Reduced relaxation 7  1.6 Creep superposition 8  1.7 Aging coefficient x: definition 10  1.8 Equation for the aging coefficient x 11  1.9 Relaxation of concrete 12  1.10 Stepbystep calculation of the relaxation function for concrete 14  1.11 Ageadjusted elasticity modulus 17  2 Stress and strain of uncracked sections 20  2.2 Sign convention 22  2.3 Strain, stress and curvature in composite and homogeneous crosssections 22  2.4 Strain and stress due to nonlinear temperature variation 27  2.5 Timedependent stress and strain in a composite section 30  2.6 Summary of analysis of timedependent strain and stress 57  2.7 Examples worked out in British units 61  3 Special cases of uncracked sections and calculation of displacements 69  3.2 Prestress loss in a section with one layer of reinforcement 70  3.3 Effects of presence of nonprestressed steel 78  3.4 Reinforced concrete section without prestress: effects of creep and shrinkage 79  3.5 Approximate equations for axial strain and curvature due to creep 85  3.6 Graphs for rectangular sections 85  3.7 Multistage prestressing 87  3.8 Calculation of displacements 88  3.9 Example worked out in British units 95  4 Timedependent internal forces in uncracked structures: analysis by the force method 100  4.2 Force method 103  4.3 Analysis of timedependent changes of internal forces by the force method 105  4.4 Movement of supports of continuous structures 121  4.5 Accounting for the reinforcement 128  4.6 Stepbystep analysis by the force method 136  4.7 Example worked out in British units 141  5 Timedependent internal forces in uncracked structures: analysis by the displacement method 146  5.2 Displacement method 147  5.3 Timedependent changes in fixedend forces in a homogeneous member 149  5.4 Analysis of timedependent changes in internal forces in continuous structures 153  5.5 Continuous composite structures 154  5.6 Timedependent changes in the fixedend forces in a composite member 156  5.7 Artificial restraining forces 158  5.8 Stepbystep analysis by the displacement method 172  6 Analysis of timedependent internal forces with conventional computer programs 176  6.2 Assumptions and limitations 177  6.3 Problem statement 179  6.4 Computer programs 179  6.5 Two computer runs 184  6.6 Equivalent temperature parameters 186  6.7 Multistage loading 188  7 Stress and strain of cracked sections 207  7.2 Basic assumptions 209  7.3 Sign convention 209  7.4 Instantaneous stress and strain 210  7.5 Effects of creep and shrinkage on a reinforced concrete section without prestress 237  7.6 Partial prestressed sections 246  7.7 Flow chart 249  7.8 Example worked out in British units 260  8 Displacements of cracked members 264  8.2 Basic assumptions 266  8.3 Strain due to axial tension 266  8.4 Curvature due to bending 271  8.5 Curvature due to a bending moment combined with an axial force 276  8.6 Summary and idealized model for calculation of deformations of cracked members subjected to N and/or M 281  8.7 Timedependent deformations of cracked members 284  8.8 Shear deformations 293  8.9 Angle of twist due to torsion 293  8.10 Examples worked out in British units 298  9 Simplified prediction of deflections 303  9.2 Curvature coefficients, [kappa] 304  9.3 Deflection prediction by interpolation between uncracked and cracked states 306  9.4 Interpolation procedure: the 'bilinear method' 314  9.5 Effective moment of inertia 315  9.6 Simplified procedure for calculation of curvature at a section subjected to M and N 318  9.7 Deflections by the bilinear method: members subjected to M and N 320  9.8 Estimation of probable deflection: method of 'global coefficients' 325  9.9 Deflection of twoway slab systems 332  10 Effects of temperature 349  10.2 Sources of heat in concrete structures 351  10.3 Shape of temperature distribution in bridge crosssections 352  10.4 Heat transfer equation 354  10.5 Material properties 357  10.6 Stresses in the transverse direction in a bridge crosssection 357  10.7 Selfequilibrating stresses 360  10.8 Continuity stresses 361  10.9 Typical temperature distributions in bridge sections 366  10.10 Effect of creep on thermal response 368  10.11 Effect of cracking on thermal response 374  11 Control of cracking 380  11.2 Variation of tensile strength of concrete 381  11.3 Forceinduced and displacementinduced cracking 382  11.4 Advantage of partial prestressing 391  11.5 Minimum reinforcement to avoid yielding of steel 391  11.6 Early thermal cracking 393  11.7 Amount of reinforcement to limit crack width 394  11.8 Considerations in crack control 399  11.9 Cracking of highstrength concrete 401  11.10 Examples worked out in British units 402  12 Design for serviceability of prestressed concrete 407  12.2 Permanent state 408  12.3 Balanced deflection factor 408  12.4 Design of prestressing level 409  12.5 Examples of design of prestress level in bridges 413  12.6 Transient stresses 416  12.7 Residual opening of cracks 419  12.8 Watertightness 419  12.9 Control of residual crack opening 421  12.10 Recommended longitudinal nonprestressed steel in closedbox bridge sections 422  12.11 Residual curvature 422  13 Nonlinear analysis of plane frames 428  13.2 Reference axis 429  13.3 Idealization of plane frames 429  13.4 Tangent stiffness matrix of a member 431  13.5 Examples of stiffness matrices 434  13.6 Fixedend forces 439  13.7 Fixedend forces due to temperature 440  13.8 Numerical integration 442  13.9 Iterative analysis 443  13.10 Convergence criteria 445  13.11 Incremental method 446  13.12 Examples of statically indeterminate structures 447  14 Serviceability of members reinforced with fibrereinforced polymers 457  14.2 Properties of FRP reinforcements for concrete 458  14.3 Strain in reinforcement and width of cracks 460  14.4 Design of crosssectional area of FRP for nonprestressed flexural members 460  14.5 Curvature and deflections of flexural members 463  14.6 Relationship between deflection, mean curvature and strain in reinforcement 464  14.7 Ratio of span to minimum thickness 466  14.8 Design examples for deflection control 469  14.9 Deformability of sections in flexure 471  14.10 Prestressing with FRP 472  Appendix A Time functions for modulus of elasticity, creep, shrinkage and aging coefficient of concrete 474  A.1 CEBFIP Model Code 1990 (MC90) 474  A.2 Eurocode 21991 (EC291) 480  A.3 ACI Committee 209 481  A.4 British Standard BS 8110 485  A.5 Computer code for creep and aging coefficients 486  A.6 Graphs for creep and aging coefficients 488  A.7 Approximate equation for aging coefficient 489  Appendix B Relaxation reduction coefficient X[subscript r] 534  Appendix C Elongation, end rotation and central deflection of a beam in terms of the values of axial strain and curvature at a number of sections 538  Appendix D Depth of compression zone in a fully cracked T section 542  Appendix E Crack width and crack spacing 544  E.2 Crack spacing 546  E.3 Eurocode 21991(EC291) 547  E.4 CEBFIP 1990(MC90) 548  E.5 ACI31889 and ACI31899 550  E.6 British Standard BS 8110 552  Appendix F Values of curvature coefficients [kappa subscript s], [kappa subscript [psi] and [kappa subscript cs] 555  Appendix G Description of computer programs provided at www.sponpress.com/concretestructures 568  G.2 Computer program CREEP 569  G.3 Computer program SCS (Stresses in Cracked Sections) 570  G.4 Computer program TDA (TimeDependent Analysis) 572. 
Summary 
Concrete structures must be designed not only to be safe against failure but also to perform satisfactorily in use. This book is written for practising engineers and students, and focuses on design methods for checking deflections and cracking which can affect the serviceability of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures. 

The authors present accurate and easytoapply methods of analysing immediate and longterm stresses and deformations. These methods allow designers to account for variations of concrete properties from project to project and from country to country, making the book universally applicable. 

Comprehensively updated, this third edition of Concrete Structures also includes four new chapters covering such topics as: nonlinear analysis of plane frames, design for serviceability of prestressed concrete, serviceability of members reinforced with fibre polymer bars, and the analysis of timedependent internal forces with linear computer programs that are routinely used by structural designers. A website accompanies the book, featuring three design calculation programs related to stresses in cracked sections, creep coefficients and timedependent analysis. 

The book contains numerous examples, some of which are worked out in the SI units and others in the Imperial units. The input data and the main results are given in both SI and Imperial units. The book is not tied to any specific code, although the latest American and European codes of practice are covered in the appendices. 
Other author 
Favre, R. (Renaud), 1934


Elbadry, M.

Subject 
Concrete construction.


Strains and stresses.


Concrete  Cracking.

ISBN 
0415247217 (alk. paper) 
