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Cover Art
PRINTED BOOKS
Author Ghali, A. (Amin)

Title Concrete structures : stresses and deformations / A. Ghali, R. Favre, M. Elbadry.

Published London ; New York : Spon Press, 2002.

Copies

Location Call No. Status
 UniM ERC  624.1834 GHAL    AVAILABLE
Edition 3rd ed.
Physical description xxiv, 584 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references (page [575]) and index.
Contents SI system of units and British equivalents xx -- 1 Creep and shrinkage of concrete and relaxation of steel 1 -- 1.2 Creep of concrete 2 -- 1.3 Shrinkage of concrete 4 -- 1.4 Relaxation of prestressed steel 5 -- 1.5 Reduced relaxation 7 -- 1.6 Creep superposition 8 -- 1.7 Aging coefficient x: definition 10 -- 1.8 Equation for the aging coefficient x 11 -- 1.9 Relaxation of concrete 12 -- 1.10 Step-by-step calculation of the relaxation function for concrete 14 -- 1.11 Age-adjusted elasticity modulus 17 -- 2 Stress and strain of uncracked sections 20 -- 2.2 Sign convention 22 -- 2.3 Strain, stress and curvature in composite and homogeneous cross-sections 22 -- 2.4 Strain and stress due to non-linear temperature variation 27 -- 2.5 Time-dependent stress and strain in a composite section 30 -- 2.6 Summary of analysis of time-dependent strain and stress 57 -- 2.7 Examples worked out in British units 61 -- 3 Special cases of uncracked sections and calculation of displacements 69 -- 3.2 Prestress loss in a section with one layer of reinforcement 70 -- 3.3 Effects of presence of non-prestressed steel 78 -- 3.4 Reinforced concrete section without prestress: effects of creep and shrinkage 79 -- 3.5 Approximate equations for axial strain and curvature due to creep 85 -- 3.6 Graphs for rectangular sections 85 -- 3.7 Multi-stage prestressing 87 -- 3.8 Calculation of displacements 88 -- 3.9 Example worked out in British units 95 -- 4 Time-dependent internal forces in uncracked structures: analysis by the force method 100 -- 4.2 Force method 103 -- 4.3 Analysis of time-dependent changes of internal forces by the force method 105 -- 4.4 Movement of supports of continuous structures 121 -- 4.5 Accounting for the reinforcement 128 -- 4.6 Step-by-step analysis by the force method 136 -- 4.7 Example worked out in British units 141 -- 5 Time-dependent internal forces in uncracked structures: analysis by the displacement method 146 -- 5.2 Displacement method 147 -- 5.3 Time-dependent changes in fixed-end forces in a homogeneous member 149 -- 5.4 Analysis of time-dependent changes in internal forces in continuous structures 153 -- 5.5 Continuous composite structures 154 -- 5.6 Time-dependent changes in the fixed-end forces in a composite member 156 -- 5.7 Artificial restraining forces 158 -- 5.8 Step-by-step analysis by the displacement method 172 -- 6 Analysis of time-dependent internal forces with conventional computer programs 176 -- 6.2 Assumptions and limitations 177 -- 6.3 Problem statement 179 -- 6.4 Computer programs 179 -- 6.5 Two computer runs 184 -- 6.6 Equivalent temperature parameters 186 -- 6.7 Multi-stage loading 188 -- 7 Stress and strain of cracked sections 207 -- 7.2 Basic assumptions 209 -- 7.3 Sign convention 209 -- 7.4 Instantaneous stress and strain 210 -- 7.5 Effects of creep and shrinkage on a reinforced concrete section without prestress 237 -- 7.6 Partial prestressed sections 246 -- 7.7 Flow chart 249 -- 7.8 Example worked out in British units 260 -- 8 Displacements of cracked members 264 -- 8.2 Basic assumptions 266 -- 8.3 Strain due to axial tension 266 -- 8.4 Curvature due to bending 271 -- 8.5 Curvature due to a bending moment combined with an axial force 276 -- 8.6 Summary and idealized model for calculation of deformations of cracked members subjected to N and/or M 281 -- 8.7 Time-dependent deformations of cracked members 284 -- 8.8 Shear deformations 293 -- 8.9 Angle of twist due to torsion 293 -- 8.10 Examples worked out in British units 298 -- 9 Simplified prediction of deflections 303 -- 9.2 Curvature coefficients, [kappa] 304 -- 9.3 Deflection prediction by interpolation between uncracked and cracked states 306 -- 9.4 Interpolation procedure: the 'bilinear method' 314 -- 9.5 Effective moment of inertia 315 -- 9.6 Simplified procedure for calculation of curvature at a section subjected to M and N 318 -- 9.7 Deflections by the bilinear method: members subjected to M and N 320 -- 9.8 Estimation of probable deflection: method of 'global coefficients' 325 -- 9.9 Deflection of two-way slab systems 332 -- 10 Effects of temperature 349 -- 10.2 Sources of heat in concrete structures 351 -- 10.3 Shape of temperature distribution in bridge cross-sections 352 -- 10.4 Heat transfer equation 354 -- 10.5 Material properties 357 -- 10.6 Stresses in the transverse direction in a bridge cross-section 357 -- 10.7 Self-equilibrating stresses 360 -- 10.8 Continuity stresses 361 -- 10.9 Typical temperature distributions in bridge sections 366 -- 10.10 Effect of creep on thermal response 368 -- 10.11 Effect of cracking on thermal response 374 -- 11 Control of cracking 380 -- 11.2 Variation of tensile strength of concrete 381 -- 11.3 Force-induced and displacement-induced cracking 382 -- 11.4 Advantage of partial prestressing 391 -- 11.5 Minimum reinforcement to avoid yielding of steel 391 -- 11.6 Early thermal cracking 393 -- 11.7 Amount of reinforcement to limit crack width 394 -- 11.8 Considerations in crack control 399 -- 11.9 Cracking of high-strength concrete 401 -- 11.10 Examples worked out in British units 402 -- 12 Design for serviceability of prestressed concrete 407 -- 12.2 Permanent state 408 -- 12.3 Balanced deflection factor 408 -- 12.4 Design of prestressing level 409 -- 12.5 Examples of design of prestress level in bridges 413 -- 12.6 Transient stresses 416 -- 12.7 Residual opening of cracks 419 -- 12.8 Water-tightness 419 -- 12.9 Control of residual crack opening 421 -- 12.10 Recommended longitudinal non-prestressed steel in closed-box bridge sections 422 -- 12.11 Residual curvature 422 -- 13 Non-linear analysis of plane frames 428 -- 13.2 Reference axis 429 -- 13.3 Idealization of plane frames 429 -- 13.4 Tangent stiffness matrix of a member 431 -- 13.5 Examples of stiffness matrices 434 -- 13.6 Fixed-end forces 439 -- 13.7 Fixed-end forces due to temperature 440 -- 13.8 Numerical integration 442 -- 13.9 Iterative analysis 443 -- 13.10 Convergence criteria 445 -- 13.11 Incremental method 446 -- 13.12 Examples of statically indeterminate structures 447 -- 14 Serviceability of members reinforced with fibre-reinforced polymers 457 -- 14.2 Properties of FRP reinforcements for concrete 458 -- 14.3 Strain in reinforcement and width of cracks 460 -- 14.4 Design of cross-sectional area of FRP for non-prestressed flexural members 460 -- 14.5 Curvature and deflections of flexural members 463 -- 14.6 Relationship between deflection, mean curvature and strain in reinforcement 464 -- 14.7 Ratio of span to minimum thickness 466 -- 14.8 Design examples for deflection control 469 -- 14.9 Deformability of sections in flexure 471 -- 14.10 Prestressing with FRP 472 -- Appendix A Time functions for modulus of elasticity, creep, shrinkage and aging coefficient of concrete 474 -- A.1 CEB-FIP Model Code 1990 (MC-90) 474 -- A.2 Eurocode 2-1991 (EC2-91) 480 -- A.3 ACI Committee 209 481 -- A.4 British Standard BS 8110 485 -- A.5 Computer code for creep and aging coefficients 486 -- A.6 Graphs for creep and aging coefficients 488 -- A.7 Approximate equation for aging coefficient 489 -- Appendix B Relaxation reduction coefficient X[subscript r] 534 -- Appendix C Elongation, end rotation and central deflection of a beam in terms of the values of axial strain and curvature at a number of sections 538 -- Appendix D Depth of compression zone in a fully cracked T section 542 -- Appendix E Crack width and crack spacing 544 -- E.2 Crack spacing 546 -- E.3 Eurocode 2-1991(EC2-91) 547 -- E.4 CEB-FIP 1990(MC-90) 548 -- E.5 ACI318-89 and ACI318-99 550 -- E.6 British Standard BS 8110 552 -- Appendix F Values of curvature coefficients [kappa subscript s], [kappa subscript [psi] and [kappa subscript cs] 555 -- Appendix G Description of computer programs provided at www.sponpress.com/concretestructures 568 -- G.2 Computer program CREEP 569 -- G.3 Computer program SCS (Stresses in Cracked Sections) 570 -- G.4 Computer program TDA (Time-Dependent Analysis) 572.
Summary Concrete structures must be designed not only to be safe against failure but also to perform satisfactorily in use. This book is written for practising engineers and students, and focuses on design methods for checking deflections and cracking which can affect the serviceability of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures.
The authors present accurate and easy-to-apply methods of analysing immediate and long-term stresses and deformations. These methods allow designers to account for variations of concrete properties from project to project and from country to country, making the book universally applicable.
Comprehensively updated, this third edition of Concrete Structures also includes four new chapters covering such topics as: non-linear analysis of plane frames, design for serviceability of prestressed concrete, serviceability of members reinforced with fibre polymer bars, and the analysis of time-dependent internal forces with linear computer programs that are routinely used by structural designers. A website accompanies the book, featuring three design calculation programs related to stresses in cracked sections, creep coefficients and time-dependent analysis.
The book contains numerous examples, some of which are worked out in the SI units and others in the Imperial units. The input data and the main results are given in both SI and Imperial units. The book is not tied to any specific code, although the latest American and European codes of practice are covered in the appendices.
Other author Favre, R. (Renaud), 1934-
Elbadry, M.
Subject Concrete construction.
Strains and stresses.
Concrete -- Cracking.
ISBN 0415247217 (alk. paper)